Article

TH17 cells mediate steroid-resistant airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

Department of Pediatrics, Lung Immunology and Host Defense Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 10/2008; 181(6):4089-97. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1870DDD
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Steroid-resistant asthma comprises an important source of morbidity in patient populations. T(H)17 cells represent a distinct population of CD4(+) Th cells that mediate neutrophilic inflammation and are characterized by the production of IL-17, IL-22, and IL-6. To investigate the function of T(H)17 cells in the context of Ag-induced airway inflammation, we polarized naive CD4(+) T cells from DO11.10 OVA-specific TCR-transgenic mice to a T(H)2 or T(H)17 phenotype by culturing in conditioned medium. In addition, we also tested the steroid responsiveness of T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells. In vitro, T(H)17 cytokine responses were not sensitive to dexamethasone (DEX) treatment despite immunocytochemistry confirming glucocorticoid receptor translocation to the nucleus following treatment. Transfer of T(H)2 cells to mice challenged with OVA protein resulted in lymphocyte and eosinophil emigration into the lung that was markedly reduced by DEX treatment, whereas T(H)17 transfer resulted in increased CXC chemokine secretion and neutrophil influx that was not attenuated by DEX. Transfer of T(H)17 or T(H)2 cells was sufficient to induce airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Interestingly, AHR was not attenuated by DEX in the T(H)17 group. These data demonstrate that polarized Ag-specific T cells result in specific lung pathologies. Both T(H)2 and T(H)17 cells are able to induce AHR, whereas T(H)17 cell-mediated airway inflammation and AHR are steroid resistant, indicating a potential role for T(H)17 cells in steroid-resistant asthma.

Full-text

Available from: Alison Logar, May 01, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
96 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The understanding of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines in inflammatory disease has rapidly developed, due in part to the discovery and characterization of inflammasomes, which are multi-subunit intracellular protein scaffolds principally enabling recognition of a myriad of cellular stimuli, leading to the activation of caspase-1 and the processing of IL-1β and IL-18. Studies continue to elucidate the role of inflammasomes in immune responses induced by both microbes and environmental factors. This review focuses on the current understanding of inflammasome activity in the lung, with particular focus on the non-microbial instigators of inflammasome activation, including inhaled antigens, oxidants, cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust particles, mineral fibers, and engineered nanomaterials, as well as exposure to trauma and pre-existing inflammatory conditions such as metabolic syndrome. Inflammasome activity in these sterile inflammatory states contribute to diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive disease, acute lung injury, ventilator-induced lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a specialized organelle that plays a central role in biosynthesis, correct protein folding, and posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of homeostasis in ER functions triggers the ER stress response, resulting in activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), a hallmark of many inflammatory diseases. These pathways have been reported as critical players in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders, including pulmonary fibrosis, lung injury, and chronic airway disorders. More interestingly, ER stress and the related signaling networks are emerging as important modulators of inflammatory and immune responses in the development of allergen-induced bronchial asthma, especially severe asthma.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 03/2015; 7(2):106-17. DOI:10.4168/aair.2015.7.2.106 · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding of scabies immunopathology has been hampered by the inability to undertake longitudinal studies in humans. Pigs are a useful animal model for scabies, and show clinical and immunologic changes similar to those in humans. Crusted scabies can be readily established in pigs by treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). Prospective study of 24 pigs in four groups: a) Scabies+/Dex+, b) Scabies+/Dex-, c) Scabies-/Dex+ and d) Scabies-/Dex-. Clinical symptoms were monitored. Histological profiling and transcriptional analysis of skin biopsies was undertaken to compare changes in cell infiltrates and representative cytokines. A range of clinical responses to Sarcoptes scabiei were observed in Dex treated and non-immunosuppressed pigs. An association was confirmed between disease severity and transcription of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, and up-regulation of the Th17 cytokines IL-17 and IL-23 in pigs with crusted scabies. Immunohistochemistry revealed marked infiltration of lymphocytes and mast cells, and strong staining for IL-17. While an allergic Th2 type response to scabies has been previously described, these results suggest that IL-17 related pathways may also contribute to immunopathology of crusted scabies. This may lead to new strategies to protect vulnerable subjects from contracting recurrent crusted scabies.
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 03/2015; 9(3):e0003498. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003498 · 4.72 Impact Factor