The purposes of this study were to (a) to describe an 8-month recruitment campaign to enroll African American smokers (N = 249) into a randomized controlled trial and (b) examine characteristics of participants recruited through proactive (face-to-face), reactive (television, radio, or newspaper ads inviting participants), and combination (both reactive and proactive) approaches. Reactive recruitment was most successful (43%), followed by proactive (31%), and combination (26%) recruitment. Compared to proactive recruitment, reactive recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence, and greater readiness to quit, processes of change engagement, and acculturation. Combination recruitment was associated with lower nicotine dependence and greater readiness to quit. The differences according to recruitment strategy could be used to tailor recruitment strategies for African American smokers.
"Recruitment, the process of identifying and enrolling eligible participants in a research study, is a fundamental component of all clinical research endeavors  . While there are published reports identifying strategies to identify potential research participants for research studies in general        , the published literature focusing on recruiting specifically for genetic research in the USA is limited      , and there is a paucity of studies specific to recruitment and enrollment strategies in epigenetic research. This gap in the literature poses a significant problem given the importance of epigenetic research. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because the effects of epigenetic (gene-environment interaction) changes have been associated with numerous adverse health states, the study of epigenetic measures provides exciting research opportunities for biobehavioral scientists. However, recruitment for studies focusing on any aspect of genetics poses challenges. Multiple factors, including lack of knowledge regarding a research study, have been identified as barriers to recruitment. Strengthening the informed consent process through extended discussion has been found to be effective in recruiting for research studies in general, yet there is a paucity of information that focused on such a recruitment strategy for epigenetic studies. In this paper, we share our experiences with strategies to strengthen the informed consent process as well as provide samples of materials developed to heighten potential participants' understanding of epigenetics, in 4 epigenetic research studies with women from diverse backgrounds experiencing a range of health issues. The combined enrollment success rate for epigenetic studies using the process was 89% with participants representing a diverse population. We posit that carefully developed recruitment scripts provided a foundation for improving potential participants' understanding of the research project. Easy to understand illustrations of the epigenetic process provided a basis for active engagement and encouraged individual questions.
"Three strategies required the target audience to react to mass media (newspaper ads, radio ads, flyers) by calling a toll-free number to enroll. Based on previous recruitment research in other racial/ethnic minority groups (Harris et al., 2003; Larkey et al., 2008; Larson et al., 2009; Marquez et al., 2003; UyBico et al., 2007; Webb, Seigers, & Wood, 2009; Yancey et al., 2006), we hypothesized that reactive recruitment would be more efficient than proactive recruitment in terms of the proportion of screened individuals who were eligible and enrolled and would be more cost-effective. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the most effective strategies to recruit male Latino smokers to cessation research studies. The purpose of this study was to identify efficient and cost-effective research recruitment strategies for this priority population.
"Contrary to many previously reported trials, we experienced high levels of interest in smoking cessation trial participation among African American smokers, with twice as many African Americans as Whites contacting the study to complete an initial telephone screening. Best practices for recruiting diverse samples were used to foster knowledge about the study including the distribution of both generic and culturally targeted materials, engaging multiple outreach strategies, and employing a diverse research staff (Fitzgibbon et al., 1998; Harris et al., 2003; Jeffries, Choi, Butler, Harris, & Ahluwalia, 2005; Staffileno & Coke, 2006; Webb et al., 2009). African Americans were significantly more likely than Whites to cite awareness of the study through public transportation advertisement, traditional media, and word of mouth referrals than by digital media, which is consistent with prior research indicating a potential " digital divide " among racial/ethnic minorities versus Whites (Brodie et al., 2000; Lorence, Park, & Fox, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the recruitment, eligibility screening, and enrollment of African American and White smokers into an intensive smoking cessation intervention trial [The Chicago STOP Smoking Trial (C-STOP)].
We compared demographic, smoking, substance use, and medical/psychiatric screening data from the recruitment records of 1,189 non-Hispanic, African American and White smokers screened for eligibility in the last year of a randomized pharmacological and behavioral smoking cessation trial. The study took place at a large urban medical center and two satellite locations within the Chicago metropolitan area.
Interest levels in the study were high among African American smokers, with twice as many African Americans as Whites contacting study staff for information and an initial screening. However, African Americans were nearly three times as likely not to be enrolled in the trial as Whites, because of higher ineligibility rates, failure to attend a screening session, and lower participation rates even among those meeting eligibility requirements.
Racial differences were observed nearly at all levels of enrollment determination. These critical barriers to inclusion of African Americans in smoking cessation research limit our understanding of treatment efficacy and ultimately the ability to reduce the health disparities in tobacco-related disease experienced by African Americans.
Health Psychology 01/2011; 30(1):40-8. DOI:10.1037/a0021649 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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