Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.
ABSTRACT Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Several kinds of cigarette tobacco were analyzed to determine contents of essential elements, natural and artificial radioactivity. The contents of essential elements and radionuclides were determined by WDXRF and gamma spectrometry, respectively. Samples were analyzed by WDXRF technique for the following elements: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr and In in cigarette tobaccos. In the contents of essential elements, the mean amounts of K (48.891%) and Ca (38.358%) have the highest contents in the cigarette tobaccos. The radionuclide activity concentrations of 137Cs, 238U, 232Th, 40K and 90Sr were measured in cigarette tobaccos. According to radioactivity concentration results, 238U ranged between 0.549 and 6.181 Bq/kg; 232Th between 0.160 and 3.748 Bq/kg; 137Cs between 0.023 and 2.355 Bq/kg; 90Sr between 0.019 and 2.305 Bq/kg and 40K between 2.894 and 56.333 Bq/kg. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 238U varied from 4.97 to 55.94 μSv/y (average 28.04 μSv/y), while for 232Th from 12.48 to 292.41 μSv/y (average 138.65 μSv/y) and for 40K from 18.97 to 370.45 nSv/y (average 139.83 nSv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs and 90Sr of Chernobyl origin varied from 0.70 to 71.29 nSv/y (average 29.86 nSv/y) and from 9.49 to 1150.93 nSv/y (average 415.29 nSv/y), respectively.Microchemical Journal 07/2014; 115:19–26. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World-wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented.Respiratory Medicine 09/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of: indoor air nicotine, a marker of secondhand smoke, and indoor surface nicotine, a marker of thirdhand smoke; and child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein, by analyzing their corresponding metabolites cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronides (total NNAL) and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Data were collected during 3 home visits during a 7-day study period from a convenience sample of 24 households with a child, 5 years or younger. Three child urine samples, and 2 air and surface samples from the living room and the child bedroom, were taken in homes of nonsmokers (n = 5), and hookah-only smokers (n = 19) comprised of daily hookah smokers (n = 8) and weekly/monthly hookah smokers (n = 11). Nicotine levels in indoor air and on surfaces in the child bedrooms in homes of daily hookah smokers were significantly higher than in homes of nonsmokers. Uptake of nicotine, NNK, and acrolein in children living in daily hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Uptake of nicotine and NNK in children living in weekly/monthly hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of nicotine, the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK, and the ciliatoxic and cardiotoxic agent acrolein in children living in homes of hookah smokers. Our findings suggest that daily and occasional hookah use in homes present a serious, emerging threat to children's long-term health.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor