Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.
ABSTRACT Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed.
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ABSTRACT: A method is presented for the determination of polonium-210 at very low levels in the presence of many different ions. Essentially quantitative recoveries were obtained in 60 min by deposition on to a silver plate in a special holder from 50 ml solution at 85–90° with sodium citrate present.RésuméOn propose une méthode pour le dosage du polonium-210, en trés faibles teneurs, en présence de nombreux ions étrangers. Des rendements quantitatifs sont obtenus en 60 minutes par déposition sur une plaque d'argent avec support spécial. On utilise 50 ml de solution á 85–90° en présence de citrate de sodium.ZusammenfassungEs wird eine Methode zur Bestimmung von Polonium-210 bei sehr geringen Konzentrationen in Gegenwart zahlreicher verschiedener Ionen beschrieben. Durch die Abscheidung auf einer Silberplatte in einem Spezialhalter bei 85–90° aus 50 ml Lösung, die Natriumcitrat enthält, konnte das Polonium nahezu quantitativ zurückgewonnen werden.Analytica Chimica Acta 02/1968; 43(2):221-6. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The waterpipe, also known as shisha, hookah, narghile, goza, and hubble bubble, has long been used for tobacco consumption in the Middle East, India, and parts of Asia, and more recently has been introduced into the smokeless tobacco market in western nations. We reviewed the published literature on waterpipe use to estimate daily nicotine exposure among adult waterpipe smokers. We identified six recent studies that measured the nicotine or cotinine levels associated with waterpipe smoking in four countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, and India). Four of these studies directly measured nicotine or cotinine levels in human subjects. The remaining two studies used smoking machines to measure the nicotine yield in smoking condensate produced by the waterpipe. Meta-analysis of the human data indicated that daily use of the waterpipe produced a 24-hr urinary cotinine level of 0.785 microg/ml (95% CI = 0.578-0.991 microg/ml), a nicotine absorption rate equivalent to smoking 10 cigarettes/day (95% CI = 7-13 cigarettes/day). Even among subjects who were not daily waterpipe smokers, a single session of waterpipe use produced a urinary cotinine level that was equivalent to smoking two cigarettes in one day. Estimates of the nicotine produced by waterpipe use can vary because of burn temperature, type of tobacco, waterpipe design, individual smoking pattern, and duration of the waterpipe smoking habit. Our quantitative synthesis of the limited human data from four nations indicates that daily use of waterpipes produces nicotine absorption of a magnitude similar to that produced by daily cigarette use.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 11/2007; 9(10):987-94. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waterpipe smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, but its use is now spreading throughout Europe and North America. It is smoked socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less lethal than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that waterpipe smoking may be as addictive as other forms of tobacco use, and may carry similar or greater risks to health. To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register, in June 2007. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using variant terms and spellings ('waterpipe' or 'narghile' or 'arghile' or 'shisha' or 'goza' or 'narkeela' or 'hookah' or 'hubble bubble'). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. We have also used our own existing bibliography, compiled from conducting an earlier exhaustive review of the literature on waterpipe smoking. We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, preferably sustained and biochemically verified, for at least six months from the start of the intervention. Each author intended to extract data and assess trial quality independently by standard Cochrane Collaboration methodologies, but no eligible trials were identified. We found no completed intervention trials targeting waterpipe smokers. A pilot randomized controlled trial by the authors of this review is underway, and will be reported in future updates. Epidemiological and observational evidence suggests that waterpipe use is growing in popularity worldwide. It is widely and erroneously perceived to be less lethal than other forms of tobacco use. Women, girls, and young people are more likely to take up waterpipe smoking, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. More research is needed on its addictive properties, and on the associated health risks, both for users and exposed non-smokers. Evidence-based information about waterpipe's addictive and harmful properties should be developed and disseminated in order to deglamourise and denormalise its use. High quality randomized trials are needed to guide treatment of waterpipe smoking.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 02/2007; · 5.70 Impact Factor