Radiological hazards of Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza) smoking: activity concentrations and dose assessment.
ABSTRACT Narghile (hookah, shisha, goza, "water-pipe") smoking has become fashionable worldwide. Its tobacco pastes, known as moassel and jurak, are not standardized and generally contain about 30-50% (sometimes more) tobacco, molasses/juice of sugarcane, various spices and dried fruits (particularly in jurak) and, in the case of moassel, glycerol and flavoring essences. Tobacco contains minute amounts of radiotoxic elements such as (210)Pb, (210)Po and uranium, which are inhaled via smoking. Only very few data have been published on the concentrations of natural radionuclides in narghile tobacco mixtures. Consequently, the aim of this study was to draw first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in moassel tobacco in relation to narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range in the radioactivity contents where the average (range) activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)Th (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (232)Th and (40)K, in Bq/kg dry weight were 55 (19-93), 11 (3-23), 3 (1.2-8), 14 (3-29), 13 (7-32), 7 (4-10) and 719 (437-1044)Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. The average concentrations of natural radionuclides in moassel tobacco pastes are comparable to their concentration in Greek cigarettes and tobacco leaves, and lower than that of Brazilian tobacco leaves. The distribution pattern of these radionuclides after smoking, between smoke, ash and filter, is unknown, except for (210)Po during cigarette smoking and from one existing study during moassel smoking. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of natural radionuclides was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radionuclides is briefly discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Narghile smoking may be associated with a number of unconventional practices that need to be thoroughly investigated for their potential health problems. We investigated the prevalence and pattern of unconventional practices related to narghile smoking including the use of medications, fruits, and alcohol, among a sample of café patrons. Place and Duration of Study: A few cafés at Amman, Jordan during July 2011. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional survey whereby a pre-prepared questionnaire was distributed to a sample of café patrons. Questionnaire included demographic information, history of tobacco use, pattern of narghile smoking including unconventional practices and lastly health awareness and attitudes towards cessation. Results: Out of 96 café patrons, 61 (63.5%) agreed to participate with 42 males and 19females. Age range was 16-64 years (mean=27.5±9.2). About 47.5% used fruits as the narghile head and 16.4% used fruits as water tank. Equal proportions (9.5%) of the sample added either milk/soft drinks to tank or added drugs to tobacco mix or the liquid contents of the tank. Conclusion: Narghile smoking may be associated with unconventional practices like the use of psychoactive drugs and alcohol. Further research is needed to explore the reasons behind this trend, and the associated potential health hazardsBritish Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 07/2013; 3(4):2042-2053.
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking has declined over the last years in modern countries. On the contrary, waterpipe smoking has increased, especially among young people visiting waterpipe bars. Unfortunately, most waterpipe smokers seem to know little about the possible cardiovascular and other health consequences of waterpipe smoking. To describe by narrative literature review the known adverse consequences for the human body caused by smoking the waterpipe compared with the consequences of smoking normal cigarettes. Also, to get a picture of public awareness of these consequences as deducted from the literature and a small new survey in the Netherlands. Tobacco smoking is associated with serious adverse (cardiovascular) health effects, and there is no evidence that these effects are less serious if a waterpipe is used. The increasing use together with the limited amount of awareness and attention for the possible health consequences of smoking the waterpipe is worrisome. Especially considering the increasing acceptance and use of the waterpipe among the youth. Therefore we recommend more systematic research into the possible health hazards of waterpipe smoking. In the meantime education campaigns and materials are needed to raise public awareness on the possible health risks of waterpipe use.Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 12/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.Health physics 10/2013; 105(4):326-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor