Nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab)-paclitaxel (Abraxane) is an albumin-bound 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel that demonstrated higher efficacy and was well tolerated compared with solvent-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and docetaxel (Taxotere) in clinical trials for metastatic breast cancer. Nab-paclitaxel enhances tumor targeting through gp60 and caveolae-mediated endothelial transcytosis and the association with the albumin-binding protein SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) in the tumor microenvironment. The overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer has been shown to correlate with resistance to paclitaxel. To evaluate the importance of HER2 and SPARC status in determining the relative efficacy of nab-paclitaxel compared with polysorbate-based docetaxel, nude mice bearing six different human tumor xenografts were treated with nab-paclitaxel (MX-1: 15 mg/kg, once a week for 3 weeks; LX-1, MDA-MB-231/HER2+, PC3, and HT29: 50 and 120 mg/kg, every 4 days three times ; MDA-MB-231: 120 and 180 mg/kg, every 4 days three times) and polysorbate-based docetaxel (15 mg/kg). HER2 and SPARC status were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. MDA-MB-231 and MX-1 breast and LX-1 lung cancers were HER2 negative and low in SPARC expression. Nab-paclitaxel at submaximum-tolerated dosage was significantly more effective than polysorbate-based docetaxel at its maximum-tolerated dosage in these three HER2-negative tumors. The HER2-positive tumors had variable SPARC expression, with MDA-MB-231/HER2+ <PC3 <HT29. In these HER2-positive tumors, nab-paclitaxel was equal to or better than polysorbate-based docetaxel in tumors with medium to high SPARC levels (PC3 and HT29), but not in MDA-MB-231/HER2+ tumors with low SPARC expression. These results demonstrated that the relative efficacy of nab-paclitaxel was significantly higher compared with polysorbate-based docetaxel in HER2-negative tumors (three of three) and in HER2-positive tumors with high levels of SPARC. HER2 and SPARC expression may be useful biomarkers in determining antitumor effectiveness for taxanes.
"However, there is no evidence that SPARC mediates albumin uptake into tumors. It has been postulated that the ability of SPARC to bind albumin in the tumor interstitium enhances the accumulation of albumin-bound drugs within the tumor space (Desai et al., 2008, 2009). Moreover, a preliminary clinical trial demonstrated that SPARC expression correlated with the response to paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticle (nab-paclitaxel or Abraxane®) treatment, with SPARC-positive patients having a better clinical outcome (Desai et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum albumin is a multi-functional protein that is able to bind and transport numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The development of albumin drug carriers is gaining increasing importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy, particularly as a result of the market approval of the paclitaxel-loaded albumin nanoparticle, Abraxane®. Considering this, there is renewed interest in isolating and characterizing albumin-binding proteins or receptors on the plasma membrane that are responsible for albumin uptake. Initially, the cellular uptake and intracellular localization of albumin was unknown due to the large confinement of the protein within the vascular and interstitial compartment of the body. Studies have since assessed the intracellular localization of albumin in order to understand the mechanisms and pathways responsible for its uptake, distribution and catabolism in multiple tissues, and this is reviewed herein.
Frontiers in Physiology 08/2014; 5:299. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00299 · 3.53 Impact Factor
"Better bioavailability of nab-paclitaxel compared to serum-bound paclitaxel was noted in other studies as well.24 Desai et al demonstrated in nude mice bearing human xenograft tumors, that intratumoral accumulation, absorption, binding to the endothelial cells, and transportation were higher for nab-paclitaxel compared with paclitaxel.25,26 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a deadly disease and is considered incurable. For the past two decades, gemcitabine remained the major chemotherapeutic drug with modest clinical benefit. Many chemotherapy and targeted agents were combined with gemcitabine but failed to demonstrate improvement in pancreatic cancer (PC) survival. Taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel) were introduced in the clinic as anti-microtubule agents and showed activity against PC cells in vitro; however, clinical efficacy was limited. Nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane) is an albumin-bound paclitaxel that has shown clinical activity in advanced breast and lung cancer. Recently, nab-paclitaxel was tested in a large Phase III clinical trial in combination with gemcitabine for the treatment of advanced PC. The data showed that the addition of nab-paclitaxel improved the response rate (7% in gemcitabine alone versus 23% in combination), progression-free survival (from 3.7 months to 5.5 months), and overall survival from 6.7 months to 8.5 months, compared to single agent gemcitabine. Through this review, we provide the preclinical and clinical progress in the development of nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of metastatic PC.
OncoTargets and Therapy 02/2014; 7:187-192. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S40705 · 2.31 Impact Factor
"In the above mentioned malignancies, SPARC is rather underexpressed in tumor cells in comparison to normal tissue. Various authors have reported the impact of SPARC overexpression in tumor stroma on effectiveness of chemotherapy.39,40 Higher level of stromal SPARC expression in tumors may lead to chemotherapy failure due to increased “activated fibroblasts.”41 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide in both men and women. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80% of cases. Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of activity against various malignancies, including NSCLC. Paclitaxel is poorly soluble in water and thus, until recently, its commercially available preparations contained a non-ionic solvent Cremophor EL®. Cremophor EL® improves the solubility of paclitaxel and allows its intravenous administration. However, certain side-effects associated with paclitaxel, such as hypersensitivity reactions, myelosuppression, and peripheral neuropathy, are known to be worsened by Cremophor®. Nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel ([nab-paclitaxel] ABRAXANE® ABI-007) is a new generation formulation of paclitaxel that obviates the need for Cremophor®, resulting in a safer and faster infusion without requiring the use of premedications to avoid hypersensitivity. Albumin-binding receptor-mediated delivery and lack of sequestering Cremophor® micelles allow higher intratumoral concentration of pharmacologically active paclitaxel. Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated a superior tolerability profile of nab-paclitaxel in comparison to solvent-bound paclitaxel (sb-paclitaxel). A recent Phase III trial compared the effects of weekly nab-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin versus sb-paclitaxel in combination with carboplatin given every 3 weeks for first line treatment of NSCLC. This trial highlights the weekly nab-paclitaxel combination as an alternate treatment option for NSCLC, with higher response rate in squamous cell NSCLC and longer survival in elderly patients. This review will focus on the properties of nab-paclitaxel and its use in the first line treatment of NSCLC.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9(1):209-221. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S41770 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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