Successful Long-Term Fixation and Progression of Osteolysis Associated with First-Generation Cementless Acetabular Components Retrieved Post Mortem

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, 1653 West Congress Parkway, Chicago, IL 60612.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.28). 10/2012; 94(20):1877-85. DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01507
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Primary cementless acetabular reconstruction has shown durable long-term fixation. Late failures secondary to aseptic loosening are rare but may occur in patients with previously well-fixed components. In the present study, the histopathological characteristics of postmortem specimens were correlated with wear damage and radiographic data in an attempt to better understand the long-term events in the periacetabular tissue around well-functioning devices.
Seventeen primary cementless Harris-Galante I acetabular components with adjacent tissues were harvested after a mean of eleven years (range, four to twenty-five years) from patients whose implants were well functioning at the time of death. Undecalcified and paraffin sections were used to quantify the extent of bone and soft tissues within the porous coating and at the interface between the coating and the surrounding bone. Wear particles were identified with use of polarized light microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Bearing-surface volumetric wear and backside wear damage of the polyethylene liner were assessed.
All of the components were fixed by bone ingrowth (mean extent, 33% ± 21%). Particle-induced granulomas were present in the porous coating and along the interface and progressed through screw holes, ballooning into the retroacetabular bone in the longer-term specimens. Particles of femoral and acetabular origin were identified in the granulomas. Bearing-surface volumetric wear (mean, 41.6 mm3/year) increased with duration and correlated with increasing extent of granuloma in the porous coating and the increasing size of pelvic granulomas. Radiolucencies on radiographs correlated with the extent of bone and fibrous tissue ingrowth. Of the six pelvic granulomas that were identified histologically, only one was apparent on routine radiographs.
Acetabular fixation by bone ingrowth can be successful into the third decade after implantation. Osteolysis and secondary replacement of bone with particle-induced granuloma are commonly seen in the presence of excellent clinical function. Strategies designed to minimize bearing-surface wear and backside damage are important to maintain long-term bone ingrowth fixation.
There remains a large patient population with clinically successful implants at potential risk of late failure secondary to progressive osteolysis.

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