Promotion of Smoking Cessation with Emotional and/or Graphic Antismoking Advertising

Public Health and Environment Division, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Electronic address: .
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 11/2012; 43(5):475-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.023
Source: PubMed


Antismoking campaigns can be effective in promoting cessation, but less is known about the dose of advertising related to behavioral change among adult smokers, which types of messages are most effective, and effects on populations disproportionately affected by tobacco use.
To assess the impact of emotional and/or graphic antismoking TV advertisements on quit attempts in the past 12 months among adult smokers in New York State.
Individual-level data come from the 2003 through 2010 New York Adult Tobacco Surveys. The influence of exposure to antismoking advertisements overall, emotional and/or graphic advertisements, and other types of advertisements on reported attempts to stop smoking was examined. Exposure was measured by self-reported confirmed recall and market-level gross rating points. Analyses conducted in Spring 2012 included 8780 smokers and were stratified by desire to quit, income, and education.
Both measures of exposure to antismoking advertisements are positively associated with an increased odds of making a quit attempt among all smokers, among smokers who want to quit, and among smokers in different household income brackets (<$30,000 and ≥$30,000) and education levels (high-school degree or less education and at least some college education). Exposure to emotional and/or graphic advertisements is positively associated with making quit attempts among smokers overall and by desire to quit, income, and education. Exposure to advertisements without strong negative emotions or graphic images had no effect.
Strongly emotional and graphic antismoking advertisements are effective in increasing population-level quit attempts among adult smokers.

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    • "Tobacco control mass media campaigns have been shown to play a key role in encouraging smoking cessation among adults [1-5] and in reducing smoking prevalence [6]. In addition, there is growing evidence to suggest that campaigns featuring emotive or graphic content are more effective than those which do not [7-9]. While several studies have investigated youth recall of tobacco control advertising [10-13], only two to date have examined the impact of campaign content on recall among adults [14,15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although there is some evidence to support an association between exposure to televised tobacco control campaigns and recall among youth, little research has been conducted among adults. In addition, no previous work has directly compared the impact of different types of emotive campaign content. The present study examined the impact of increased exposure to tobacco control advertising with different types of emotive content on rates and durations of self-reported recall. Methods Data on recall of televised campaigns from 1,968 adult smokers residing in England through four waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United Kingdom Survey from 2005 to 2009 were merged with estimates of per capita exposure to government-run televised tobacco control advertising (measured in GRPs, or Gross Rating Points), which were categorised as either “positive” or “negative” according to their emotional content. Results Increased overall campaign exposure was found to significantly increase probability of recall. For every additional 1,000 GRPs of per capita exposure to negative emotive campaigns in the six months prior to survey, there was a 41% increase in likelihood of recall (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.24–1.61), while positive campaigns had no significant effect. Increased exposure to negative campaigns in both the 1–3 months and 4–6 month periods before survey was positively associated with recall. Conclusions Increased per capita exposure to negative emotive campaigns had a greater effect on campaign recall than positive campaigns, and was positively associated with increased recall even when the exposure had occurred more than three months previously.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):432. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-432 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Another source of support for the SIMON framework is the use of affective stimuli that conflict with a reward. For instance, cigarette packages in North America often depict graphical images of the negative consequences of smoking, and have been shown to help individuals quit smoking (Farrelly et al., 2012). Extending this to food stimuli, Veling et al. (2011) presented participants with palatable food images in a go/no-go task, but preceded the food images with affective faces. "
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    ABSTRACT: While the effects of reward, affect, and motivation on learning have each developed into their own fields of research, they largely have been investigated in isolation. As all three of these constructs are highly related, and use similar experimental procedures, an important advance in research would be to consider the interplay between these constructs. Here we first define each of the three constructs, and then discuss how they may influence each other within a common framework. Finally, we delineate several sources of evidence supporting the framework. By considering the constructs of reward, affect, and motivation within a single framework, we can develop a better understanding of the processes involved in learning and how they interplay, and work toward a comprehensive theory that encompasses reward, affect, and motivation.
    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:59. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2013.00059
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    • "Negative emotions in ads were usually found to effectively induce prosocial behavior ! Negative emotions in anti-smoking campaigns impact reported quitting attempts (Farrelly, Duke et al., 2012) but do not promote quit-line calls (Farrelly, Davis et al., 2011). ! "
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    ABSTRACT: TV ads of non-profit organizations increasingly focus on TV viewers’ emotional reactions with the implicit goal to benefit from the viewers emotional involvement. The substantial body of research on emotional persuasion processes, however, reports mixed results. Additionally, it is not clear, weather the results are applicable for socially relevant topics, because (1) research often focused on the attitude changes towards commercial products and brands, (2) frequently used emotional stimuli that are strongly tied to evolutionary stable reactions (e.g. sexual sensation), or (3) did not account for emotional reactions of different valences. The present study addresses the question weather emotional reactions of both valences during the reception of TV advertisement affect persuasion processes for socially relevant topics. In a laboratory experiment (N = 86) three randomized groups of student participants watched a randomized 5-minute block of current TV ads for three subsequent weeks with one-week intervals. Following a pretest, two structurally similar ads were added for the experimental conditions eliciting either strong positive or negative emotions. Both spots were part of a current anti-ageism campaign of two non-profit organizations. The control group watched only the commercial ads. Two post-hoc measures for attitudes towards elderly people were assessed directly after the third presentation (t1) as well as two weeks later (t2). A MANOVAs on the subscales of both measures did not indicate differences between groups at t1, Λpillai = .08, F(10,152) = 0.62, n.s., suggesting that even the non-intrusive and highly attentive repeated reception of emotional ads fails to affect viewer’s attitudes directly. Only attitudes at t2 revealed a significant multivariate effect, Λpillai = .23, F(10,152) = 2.01, p < .05, η2part = .12, possibly as a result of repeated assessment. The results indicate that social stereotypes are rather robust against TV ad induced social attitude changes regardless of the ad’s emotional content.
    8th Conference of the Media Psychology Division of the DGPs, Würzburg, Germany; 09/2013
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