Serogroup B Neisseria meningitides (MenB) is a significant cause of endemic and epidemic outbreaks of the disease worldwide. Although polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are available against other meningococcal serogroups, the poor immunogenicity of MenB polysaccharide has led to the development of protein-based vaccines. However, the diversity and antigenic variability of MenB strains has been a major challenge. Recently a new generation of MenB vaccines that contain conserved antigens has been developed to provide broader coverage and they are in an advanced stage of development and regulatory consideration. In October 2011, the World Health Organization and Health Canada jointly organized a consultation on regulatory considerations for the evaluation and licensing of new MenB vaccines. The aim was to seek consensus on key regulatory issues relevant to the evaluation of candidate MenB vaccines and on approaches to the standardisation of in vitro assays used in the evaluation process. Participants agreed that functional antibodies as measured in the Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay could be used to evaluate MenB vaccine efficacy and ways of improving assay standardization proposed. Approaches to bridging SBA data to large collections of strains in order to give an indication of the prospective breadth of vaccine coverage were discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was inferred before licensure from an aggregate correlate of protection established for the seven-valent vaccine (PCV7). We did a postlicensure assessment of serotype-specific vaccine effectiveness and immunogenicity in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland to derive the correlates of protection for individual serotypes.
We assessed vaccine effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease using the indirect cohort method. We measured serotype-specific IgG concentration in infants after they were given two priming doses of PCV7 (n=126) or PCV13 (n=237) and opsonophagocytic antibody titre from a subset of these infants (n=100). We derived correlates of protection by relating percentage protection to a threshold antibody concentration achieved by an equivalent percentage of infants. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and reverse cumulative distribution curves to estimate correlates of protection.
For the 706 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease included in the study, PCV13 vaccine effectiveness after two doses before age 12 months or one dose from 12 months was 75% (95% CI 58–84). Vaccine effectiveness was 90% (34–98) for the PCV7 serotypes and 73% (55–84) for the six additional serotypes included in PCV13. Protection was shown for four of the six additional PCV13 serotypes (vaccine effectiveness for serotype 3 was not significant and no cases of serotype 5 infection occurred during the observation period). The vaccine effectiveness for PCV13 and PCV7 was lower than predicted by the aggregate correlate of protection of 0·35 μg/mL used during licensing. Calculated serotype-specific correlates of protection were higher than 0·35 μg/mL for serotypes 1, 3, 7F, 19A, 19F, and lower than 0·35 μg/mL for serotypes 6A, 6B, 18C, and 23F. Opsonophagocytic antibody titres of 1 in 8 or higher did not predict protection.
PCV13 provides significant protection for most of the vaccine serotypes. Although use of the aggregate correlate of protection of 0·35 μg/mL has enabled the licensing of effective new PCVs, serotype-specific correlates of protection vary widely. The relation between IgG concentration after priming and long-term protection needs to be better understood.
Public Health England and UK Department of Health Research and Development Directorate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
In January 2013 a novel type of multicomponent protein-based vaccine against group B meningococcal disease was licensed by the European Medicines Agency. With the widespread use of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines, serogroup B remains now the major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia in young children in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate the health and the economic outcomes of MenB vaccine introduction into the Italian routine mass vaccination programme.
The present work is structured in two main parts. Firstly, we assess the epidemiological burden of group B meningococcal disease using official hospitalisation and notification data from two of the most populated Italian regions (Lombardia and Piemonte) during a 6-year study period (2007-2012). Secondly, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation programme in Italy from the public health payer perspective under base case parameters assumptions and performing a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness and the uncertainty of our model results.
MenB serotype is responsible for 59% of the 341 cases of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Lombardia and Piemonte. Incidence rate for MenB infection is estimated to be 0.21/100,000/y resulting at the highest level in children ≤4 years of age. Although the new MenB vaccine can potentially prevent about one third of the disease cases in the Italian population, model results show this strategy is unlikely to be cost-effective (ICER value over €350,000/QALY) with a vaccine that prevents disease only. These results are robust under most of the sensitivity scenarios except when allowing for lower discount rates.
The introduction of the novel vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule needs to be carefully evaluated. The new MenB vaccine has the potential to reduce the disease burden at the population level. However, from the Italian Health Service perspective, the immunisation programme is unlikely to be cost-effective at the current incidence levels and vaccine price.
PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123383. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123383 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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