Dual Activation of Phospholipase C-ϵ by Rho and Ras GTPases
ABSTRACT Phospholipase C-epsilon (PLC-epsilon) is a highly elaborated PLC required for a diverse set of signaling pathways. Here we use a combination of cellular assays and studies with purified proteins to show that activated RhoA and Ras isoforms directly engage distinct regions of PLC-epsilon to stimulate its phospholipase activity. Purified PLC-epsilon was activated in a guanine nucleotide- and concentration-dependent fashion by purified lipidated K-Ras reconstituted in PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-containing phospholipid vesicles. Whereas mutation of two critical lysine residues within the second Ras-association domain of PLC-epsilon prevented K-Ras-dependent activation of the purified enzyme, guanine nucleotide-dependent activation by RhoA was retained. Deletion of a loop unique to PLC-epsilon eliminated its activation by RhoA but not H-Ras. In contrast, removal of the autoinhibitory X/Y-linker region of the catalytic core of PLC-epsilon markedly activates the enzyme (Hicks, S. N., Jezyk, M. R., Gershburg, S., Seifert, J. P., Harden, T. K., and Sondek, J. (2008) Mol. Cell, 31, 383-394), but PLC-epsilon lacking this regulatory region retained activation by both Rho and Ras GTPases. Additive activation of PLC-epsilon by RhoA and K- or H-Ras was observed in intact cell studies, and this additivity was recapitulated in experiments in which activation of purified PLC-epsilon was quantified with PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-containing phospholipid vesicles reconstituted with purified, isoprenylated GTPases. A maximally effective concentration of activated RhoA also increased the sensitivity of purified PLC-epsilon to activation by K-Ras. These results indicate that PLC-epsilon can be directly and concomitantly activated by both RhoA and individual Ras GTPases resulting in diverse upstream control of signaling cascades downstream of PLC-epsilon.
- SourceAvailable from: Vincenza Rita Lo Vasco
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- "In the present study, PI-PLC β4 and PI-PLC δ3 were expressed. PI-PLC ε known to be a downstream effector of Ras superfamily GTPases and an upstream activator of small GTPases, both Ras and Rap (Seifert et al. 2008), was weakly expressed. The expression of PI-PLC β1 is significantly higher. "
ABSTRACT: The definition of the number and nature of signal transduction pathways networking in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma raised great interest. Intracellular calcium ions are important second messengers implicated in the control of cell death. The calcium concentration is regulated by signal transduction pathways, including the Phosphoinositides (PI) signaling. Phosphatydil inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2) is critical for many cellular activities. The levels of PIP2 are regulated by means of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family of enzymes. We delineated the panel of expression of PI-PLC enzymes in four human osteosarcoma cell lines. In MG-63 cell line, PI-PLC β1, β2, β3, β4, γ1, γ2, δ1, δ3 and ε resulted expressed. In 143B cell line, PI-PLC β1, β2, β3, β4, γ1, γ2, δ1, δ3 and ε were expressed. In SaOS-2 cell line, PI-PLC β1, β3, β4, γ1, γ2, δ1, δ3, ε and η1. In Hs888 cell line, PI-PLC β1, β3, β4, γ1, δ1, δ3, δ4, ε and η1 the administration of U-73122 to cultures briefly modifies the levels of PI-PLC transcripts. The obtained complete expression panel of PI-PLC isoforms will be a useful tool for further functional studies about the role of the PI signal transduction pathway in osteosarcoma.Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling 02/2013; 8(3). DOI:10.1007/s12079-013-0194-6
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- "Although not yet verified in conditions satisfying the four criteria, data from the literature may suggest interesting possibilities. Indeed, RhoA and Rac1 activate PLC isoforms, including the PLCβ, PLCΓ, and PLCε (Thodeti et al., 2002; Illenberger et al., 2003; Wing et al., 2003; Piechulek et al., 2005; Seifert et al., 2008; Walliser et al., 2008; Guo et al., 2010) which, in turn, could determine the activation of Rap1A through CALDAG–GEF. Notably, the lipid kinase activity of PIP5K1C itself may contribute to Rap1A activation by increasing the local concentration of PtdIns(4,5)P2, which, in turn, is substrate of PLCs leading to activation of CALDAG–GEF and, ultimately, of Rap1A. "
ABSTRACT: Integrin-mediated adhesion is a general concept referring to a series of adhesive phenomena including tethering-rolling, affinity, valency, and binding stabilization altogether controlling cell avidity (adhesiveness) for the substrate. Arrest chemokines modulate each aspect of integrin activation, although integrin affinity regulation has been recognized as the prominent event in rapid leukocyte arrest induced by chemokines. A variety of inside-out and outside-in signaling mechanisms have been related to the process of integrin-mediated adhesion in different cellular models, but only few of them have been clearly contextualized to rapid integrin affinity modulation by arrest chemokines in primary leukocytes. Complex signaling processes triggered by arrest chemokines and controlling leukocyte integrin activation have been described for ras-related rap and for rho-related small GTPases. We summarize the role of rap and rho small GTPases in the regulation of rapid integrin affinity in primary leukocytes and provide a modular view of these pro-adhesive signaling events. A potential, albeit still speculative, mechanism of rho-mediated regulation of cytoskeletal proteins controlling the last step of integrin activation is also discussed. We also discuss data suggesting a functional integration between the rho- and rap-modules of integrin activation. Finally we examine the universality of signaling mechanisms regulating integrin triggering by arrest chemokines.Frontiers in Immunology 05/2012; 3:127. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00127
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- "Activaton of Gα12/13 leads to RhoA and phospholipase C-ε activation , . Phospholipase C-ε is known to activate Ras and PKC , . Besides, some activation mechanisms of RhoA by Ras had been reported , . "
ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses are a severe threat worldwide, causing large epidemics that kill thousands every year. Prevention of influenza infection is complicated by continuous viral antigenic changes. Newer anti-influenza agents include MEK/ERK and protein kinase C inhibitors; however, the downstream effectors of these pathways have not been determined. In this study, we identified a common mechanism for the inhibitory effects of a significant group of anti-influenza agents. Our studies showed that influenza infection activates a series of signaling pathways that converge to induce myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Inhibiting MLC phosphorylation by blocking RhoA/Rho kinase, phospholipase C/protein kinase C, and HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK pathways with the use of genetic or chemical manipulation leads to the inhibition of influenza proliferation. In contrast, the induction of MLC phosphorylation enhances influenza proliferation, as does activation of the HRas/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. This effect is attenuated by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, in intracellular trafficking studies, we found that the nuclear export of influenza ribonucleoprotein depends on MLC phosphorylation. Our studies provide evidence that modulation of MLC phosphorylation is an underlying mechanism for the inhibitory effects of many anti-influenza compounds.PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e21444. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021444 · 3.23 Impact Factor