Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, causing 500,000 deaths yearly. The risk factors mostly responsible for the rising incidence of HCC in the Western hemisphere are hepatitis C, alcoholic cirrhosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which most commonly leads to HCC in the setting of cirrhosis. Over the past 30 years, several chemotherapeutic single agents and combinations have been tested in HCC, yet none have demonstrated any improvement in survival. Recently, the multitargeted anti-angiogenic and Raf kinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown a survival advantage as a single agent and improved outcomes in combination with doxorubicin. Other novel agents have also shown intriguing outcomes as single agents (sunitinib) or in combination (bevacizumab and erlotinib). The encouraging results and clinical information gathered in recent trials are generating important clinical questions regarding which patients to treat, how to accommodate concurrent cirrhosis, and which parameters to use to monitor efficacy and the potential benefit from therapy.
"Interestingly, recently studies show that the multikinase inhibitor drug sorafenib can induce HCC apoptosis through inhibiting the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway . Another receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug, sunitinib is also a strong apoptosis inducer in different tumor cells, especially in the presence of inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway . Similar situations might be found with other multikinase that are on the way towards approval for HCC therapy . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have clearly validated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients with chronic HBV infection are at increased risk of HCC, in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis.
We catalogued all published interactions between HBV and human proteins, identifying 250 descriptions of HBV and human protein interactions and 146 unique human proteins that interact with HBV proteins by text mining.
Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HBV are made up of core proteins that are interconnected with many pathways. A global analysis based on functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HBV.
By connecting the cellular proteins targeted by HBV, we have constructed a central network of proteins associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, which might be to regard as the basis of a detailed map for tracking new cellular interactions, and guiding future investigations.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 11/2010; 29(1):146. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-29-146 · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem, being the sixth most common cancer world-wide. Dysregulation of the balance between proliferation and cell death represents a pro-tumorigenic principle in human hepatocarcinogenesis. This review updates the recent relevant contributions reporting molecular alterations for HCC that induce an imbalance in the regulation of apoptosis. Alterations in the expression and/or activation of p53 are frequent in HCC cells, which confer on them resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Many HCCs are also insensitive to apoptosis induced either by death receptor ligands, such as FasL or TRAIL, or by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Although the expression of some pro-apoptotic genes is decreased, the balance between death and survival is dysregulated in HCC mainly due to overactivation of anti-apoptotic pathways. Indeed, some molecules involved in counteracting apoptosis, such as Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, c-IAP1, XIAP or survivin are over-expressed in HCC cells. Furthermore, some growth factors that mediate cell survival are up-regulated in HCC, as well as the molecules involved in the machinery responsible for cleavage of their pro-forms to an active peptide. The expression and/or activation of the JAK/STAT, PI3K/AKT and RAS/ERKs pathways are enhanced in many HCC cells, conferring on them resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Finally, recent evidence indicates that inflammatory processes, as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions that occur in HCC cells to facilitate their dissemination, are related to cell survival. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to selectively inhibit anti-apoptotic signals in liver tumor cells have the potential to provide powerful tools to treat HCC.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2009; 15(5):513-20. DOI:10.3748/wjg.15.513 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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