Structure and anti-dengue virus activity of sulfated polysaccharide from a marine alga.
ABSTRACT A sulfated polysaccharide, named fucoidan, from the marine alga Cladosiphon okamuranus is comprised of carbohydrate units containing glucuronic acid and sulfated fucose residues. Here we found this compound potently inhibits dengue virus type 2 (DEN2) infection. Viral infection was inhibited when DEN2, but not other serotypes, was pretreated with fucoidan. A carboxy-reduced fucoidan derivative in which glucuronic acid was converted to glucose did not inhibit viral infection. Elimination of the sulfated function group from fucoidan significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity on DEN2 infection with <1% fucoidan. DEN2 particles bound exclusively to fucoidan, indicating that fucoidan interacts directly with envelope glycoprotein (EGP) on DEN2. Structure-based analysis suggested that Arg323 of DEN2 EGP, which is conformationally proximal to one of the putative heparin binding residues, Lys310, is critical for the interaction with fucoidan. In conclusion, both the sulfated group and glucuronic acid of fucoidan account for the inhibition of DEN2 infection.
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ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus related to measles virus that infects dogs and other carnivores. CDV has a significant global impact on animal health; however, there is no current antiviral treatment for CDV infection. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sulfated polysaccharides exhibit antiviral properties both in vivo and in vitro, despite their low cytotoxicity to host cells. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found in the cell wall matrix of brown algae. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-CDV activity of fucoidan, which was derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus. Fucoidan actively inhibited CDV replication in Vero cells at a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1 lg/ml. The derived selectivity index (SI50) was [20,000. This polysaccharide likely inhibits viral infection by interference in the early steps and by inhibiting CDV-mediated cell fusion. Fucoidan may be useful in development of pharmacological strategies to treat and control CDV infection.VirusDis. 10/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted.Scientific Reports 06/2014; 4:5452. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dengue fever, a reemerging disease, is putting nearly 2.5 billion people at risk worldwide. The number of infections and the geographic extension of dengue fever infection have increased in the past decade. The disease is caused by the dengue virus, a flavivirus that uses mosquitos Aedes sp. as vectors. The disease has several clinical manifestations, from the mild cold-like illness to the more serious hemorrhagic dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there is no approved drug for the treatment of dengue disease or an effective vaccine to fight the virus. Therefore, the search for antivirals against dengue virus is an active field of research. As new possible receptors and biological pathways of the virus biology are discovered, new strategies are being undertaken to identify possible antiviral molecules. Several groups of researchers have targeted the initial step in the infection as a potential approach to interfere with the virus. The viral entry process is mediated by viral proteins and cellular receptor molecules that end up in the endocytosis of the virion, the fusion of both membranes, and the release of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. This review provides an overview of the targets and progress that has been made in the quest for dengue virus entry inhibitors.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:825039. · 2.71 Impact Factor