Structure and anti-dengue virus activity of sulfated polysaccharide from a marine alga
ABSTRACT A sulfated polysaccharide, named fucoidan, from the marine alga Cladosiphon okamuranus is comprised of carbohydrate units containing glucuronic acid and sulfated fucose residues. Here we found this compound potently inhibits dengue virus type 2 (DEN2) infection. Viral infection was inhibited when DEN2, but not other serotypes, was pretreated with fucoidan. A carboxy-reduced fucoidan derivative in which glucuronic acid was converted to glucose did not inhibit viral infection. Elimination of the sulfated function group from fucoidan significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity on DEN2 infection with <1% fucoidan. DEN2 particles bound exclusively to fucoidan, indicating that fucoidan interacts directly with envelope glycoprotein (EGP) on DEN2. Structure-based analysis suggested that Arg323 of DEN2 EGP, which is conformationally proximal to one of the putative heparin binding residues, Lys310, is critical for the interaction with fucoidan. In conclusion, both the sulfated group and glucuronic acid of fucoidan account for the inhibition of DEN2 infection.
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is at present the most widespread causative agent of a human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite the increasing incidence of this pathogen, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines currently available for treatment or prevention. In a previous screening assay, we identified a group of N-allyl acridones as effective virus inhibitors. Here, the antiviral activity and mode of action targeted to viral RNA replication of one of the most active DENV-2 inhibitors was further characterized. The compound 10-allyl-7-chloro-9(10H)-acridone, designated 3b, was active to inhibit the in vitro infection of Vero cells with the four DENV serotypes, with effective concentration 50% (EC50) values in the range 12.5-27.1 μM, as determined by virus yield inhibition assays. The compound was also effective in human HeLa cells. No cytotoxicity was detected at 3b concentrations up to 1000 μM. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that virus entry into the host cell was not affected, whereas viral RNA synthesis was strongly inhibited, as quantified by real time RT-PCR. The addition of exogenous guanosine together with 3b rescued only partially the infectivity of DENV-2. The acridone derivative 3b selectively inhibits the infection of Vero cells with the four DENV serotypes without a direct interaction with the host cell or the virion but interfering specifically with the intracellular virus multiplication. The mode of antiviral action for this acridone apparently involves the cellular enzyme inosine-monophospahe dehydrogenase together with another still unidentified target related to DENV RNA synthesis.Journal of Biomedical Science 04/2015; 22(1):29. DOI:10.1186/s12929-015-0134-2 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus related to measles virus that infects dogs and other carnivores. CDV has a significant global impact on animal health; however, there is no current antiviral treatment for CDV infection. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that sulfated polysaccharides exhibit antiviral properties both in vivo and in vitro, despite their low cytotoxicity to host cells. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found in the cell wall matrix of brown algae. In this study, we evaluated in vitro anti-CDV activity of fucoidan, which was derived from Cladosiphon okamuranus. Fucoidan actively inhibited CDV replication in Vero cells at a 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.1 lg/ml. The derived selectivity index (SI50) was [20,000. This polysaccharide likely inhibits viral infection by interference in the early steps and by inhibiting CDV-mediated cell fusion. Fucoidan may be useful in development of pharmacological strategies to treat and control CDV infection.10/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1007/s13337-014-0228-6
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ABSTRACT: There is a current tendency towards bioactive natural products with applications in various industries, such as pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics and food. This has put some emphasis in research on marine organisms, including macroalgae and microalgae, among others. Polysaccharides with marine origin constitute one type of these biochemical compounds that have already proved to have several important properties, such as anticoagulant and/or antithrombotic, immunomodulatory ability, antitumor and cancer preventive, antilipidaemic and hypoglycaemic, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, making them promising bioactive products and biomaterials with a wide range of applications. Their properties are mainly due to their structure and physicochemical characteristics, which depend on the organism they are produced by. In the biomedical field, the polysaccharides from algae can be used in controlled drug delivery, wound management, and regenerative medicine. This review will focus on the biomedical applications of marine polysaccharides from algae.Marine Drugs 05/2015; · 3.51 Impact Factor