Structure and anti-dengue virus activity of sulfated polysaccharide from a marine alga.
ABSTRACT A sulfated polysaccharide, named fucoidan, from the marine alga Cladosiphon okamuranus is comprised of carbohydrate units containing glucuronic acid and sulfated fucose residues. Here we found this compound potently inhibits dengue virus type 2 (DEN2) infection. Viral infection was inhibited when DEN2, but not other serotypes, was pretreated with fucoidan. A carboxy-reduced fucoidan derivative in which glucuronic acid was converted to glucose did not inhibit viral infection. Elimination of the sulfated function group from fucoidan significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity on DEN2 infection with <1% fucoidan. DEN2 particles bound exclusively to fucoidan, indicating that fucoidan interacts directly with envelope glycoprotein (EGP) on DEN2. Structure-based analysis suggested that Arg323 of DEN2 EGP, which is conformationally proximal to one of the putative heparin binding residues, Lys310, is critical for the interaction with fucoidan. In conclusion, both the sulfated group and glucuronic acid of fucoidan account for the inhibition of DEN2 infection.
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus is an emerging global health threat. Its major envelope glycoprotein, E, mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. A crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of E from dengue virus type 2 reveals a hydrophobic pocket lined by residues that influence the pH threshold for fusion. The pocket, which accepts a hydrophobic ligand, opens and closes through a conformational shift in a beta-hairpin at the interface between two domains. These features point to a structural pathway for the fusion-activating transition and suggest a strategy for finding small-molecule inhibitors of dengue and other flaviviruses.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2003; 100(12):6986-91. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The specific mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize flavivirus infectivity are not completely understood. To study these mechanisms in more detail, we analyzed the ability of a well-defined set of anti-dengue (DEN) virus E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to block virus adsorption to Vero cells. In contrast to previous studies, the binding sites of these MAbs were localized to one of three structural domains (I, II, and III) in the E glycoprotein. The results indicate that most MAbs that neutralize virus infectivity do so, at least in part, by the blocking of virus adsorption. However, MAbs specific for domain III were the strongest blockers of virus adsorption. These results extend our understanding of the structure-function relationships in the E glycoprotein of DEN virus and provide the first direct evidence that domain III encodes the primary flavivirus receptor-binding motif.Journal of Virology 09/2001; 75(16):7769-73. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Two homogeneous sulfated polysaccharides obtained from the red seaweeds Gymnogongrus griffithsiae and Cryptonemia crenulata, the kappa/iota/nu carrageenan G3d and the dl-galactan hybrid C2S-3, were assayed for their antiviral properties against the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) in different host cell types. Both seaweed derivatives were selective inhibitors of DENV-2 multiplication in Vero cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values around 1 microg/ml and selectivity indices > 1000. The compounds had a lower antiviral effect against DENV-3 (IC50 values in the range 13.9-14.2 microg/ml), an even lower effect against DENV-4 (IC50 values in the range 29.3 to > 50 microg/ml) and were totally inactive against DENV-1. With respect to the host cell, the polysulfates were inhibitors of DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the human hepatoma HepG2 and foreskin PH cells, with similar antiviral effectiveness as in Vero cells, but were totally inactive in mosquito C6/36 HT cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that G3d and C2S-3 were active DENV-2 inhibitors only when added together with the virus or early after infection, and both initial processes of virus adsorption and internalization are the main targets of these compounds. Therefore, the variations in antiviral activity of the polysaccharides depending on the viral serotype and the host cell may be ascribed to differences in the virus-cell interaction leading to virus entry.Antiviral Research 06/2005; 66(2-3):103-10. · 3.93 Impact Factor