Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy after transurethral resection of the prostate: surgical and functional outcomes.
ABSTRACT To compare the morbidity and functional results after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with and without previous transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
From May 1998 to January 2005, 640 patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, of whom 46 (7.2%) had previously undergone TURP. The perioperative and postoperative data were compared between group 1 (with previous TURP) and group 2 (without previous TURP). The functional results were assessed by self-administered questionnaires at 12 and 24 months after surgery.
In group 1, the operative time, hospital stay, and bladder catheterization duration was increased by 31 minutes, 1.9 days, and 2.9 days, respectively. The positive margin rate was not significantly different statistically between the two groups (P = .62). The 5-year actuarial freedom from biochemical recurrence rate was similar between the two groups (P = .86). Surgical complications occurred in 15.2% of group 1 and 5.7% of group 2 (P = .02). The risk of anastomotic stricture was 6.5% and 1.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = .02). Two years after surgery, the continence rate was 86.9% in group 1 and 95.8% in group 2 (P = .77), and the potency rate was 63.8% and 70.9%, respectively, after bilateral neurovascular bundle preservation (P = .61). However, neurovascular bundle preservation was performed after previous TURP in only 56.5% of group 1 vs 78.9% in group 2 (P = .02). The median follow-up was 50.8 months (range 30-107).
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy can be performed after TURP without compromising the oncologic results. However, patients should be informed that the procedure is associated with worse intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. Although the urinary continence rate was not hampered by previous TURP, neurovascular bundle preservation is technically more difficult and compromises postoperative erectile function.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in a retrospective study, the impact of routine prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing on the rate of incidental prostate cancer in patients undergoing surgery for obstructive symptoms caused by presumed benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) and to investigate the indication of a routine biopsy before alternative treatment procedures for BPE. In the pre-PSA era, the diagnosis of incidental carcinoma was exclusively based on normal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings. Since January 1993, 2422 operations (2283 transurethral resection of the prostate, 139 retropubic adenoma enucleations) for BPE were performed at our institution. The preoperative DRE findings and PSA level were evaluated, and patients with any suspicion for cancer were excluded. The pathologic reports of all patients were reviewed. A diagnosis of incidental carcinoma of the prostate required histologic evidence of cancer and negative DRE findings and a PSA level within age-specific reference ranges preoperatively. Of 2422 patients, 1127 (46.5%) had both negative DRE findings and an age-specific PSA level and were evaluated for our study. Overall, prostate cancer was diagnosed by surgery in 314 (13%) of 2422 patients. The rate of incidental prostate cancer in patients with both negative age-specific PSA levels and negative DRE findings was 6.4% (72 of 1127). In our series, the likelihood of detecting incidental prostate cancer by surgery was 6.4%. In the PSA era, the rate of incidental prostate cancer has been decreased by more than 50%. Today, the low rate of incidental carcinoma does not warrant routine histologic evaluation of the prostate if PSA testing and DRE are negative when alternative treatment modalities without tissue sampling are offered for the treatment of BPE.Urology 10/2003; 62(3):451-5. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of 153 patients with prior prostate surgery underwent a radical retropubic prostatectomy for carcinoma of the prostate. Ninety-seven patients had undergone transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), and 56 patients had undergone suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy (SPP). In 115 patients, the diagnosis of malignancy was made at the time of transurethral resection or enucleation. No perioperative deaths occurred and no patient suffered rectal injury or ureteral transection. Operative time and blood loss were similar between the TURP and SPP groups and were not different in a group of patients who had not had prior prostate surgery. Early and late complications occurred in eight patients (5.2%), of whom seven had had previous TURP. Complete urinary control was achieved in 96% (147) of the patients; stress incontinence was present in 4% (6 patients); and no patient was totally incontinent. Postoperative complications and the occurrence of stress incontinence were not related to the time elapsed between the previous prostate surgery and the radical prostatectomy. Sexual function was preserved in 32 (71%) of the 45 patients in whom we performed a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Residual cancer was found in the radical prostatectomy specimen in 77 (67%) of the stage A patients. Twenty-nine (25%) of the stage A and 13 (34%) of the stage B patients had pathological evidence of disease extension beyond the confined prostate. Follow-up was 6-92 months, with a mean of 32 months. Four patients died of prostatic cancer, two patients died without cancer, and five have evidence of disease progression; 142 (93%) are alive without evidence of disease. Although radical prostatectomy sometimes is more difficult after previous prostate surgery, operative complication rates, patient morbidity, and the opportunity for surgical cure are not different from those seen in patients with no history of previous prostate operations.Journal of Surgical Oncology 02/1994; 55(1):14-9. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radical prostatectomy has progressively become an elective treatment for primary localized prostate cancer as well as for incidental or subsequent prostatic cancer after previous surgery for obstructive benign disease. This increased acceptance opens concerns about oncological and functional outcomes. Between July 1999 and August 2003, 109 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer as a second line approach after surgery for primary bladder outlet obstruction. Of these patients 88 had undergone previous transurethral resection of the prostate and 21 had undergone open prostatectomy. Incidental and delayed prostate cancer was detected in 71 and 38 cases, respectively. Perioperative and postoperative morbidity was evaluated in all patients, while postoperative functional outcomes were assessed by a subjective questionnaire in 43. As a second surgery, radical retropubic prostatectomy was generally more complex technically and it resulted in longer operative time compared to radical surgery in naïve patients. In contrast, early and delayed postoperative morbidity increased moderately. Complete urinary continence was documented in 32 (74%) and 37 patients (86%) at the 6 and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. In this patient cohort adequate erectile function was reported by 12%. Radical retropubic prostatectomy can be performed safely after previous prostate surgery for bladder outlet obstruction. However, a consistent surgical background in prostate surgery is needed to manage frequently unexpected difficulties. Candidates for second line prostate surgery should be informed that functional results are less predictable and satisfactory than those achieved after the same surgical approach in naïve patients.The Journal of Urology 01/2007; 176(6 Pt 1):2459-63; discussion 2463. · 3.70 Impact Factor