Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD009260

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 230 South Frontage Road, PO BOX 207900, New Haven, CT, USA, 06520-7900.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 6.03). 10/2012; 10(10):CD009260. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009260.pub2
Source: PubMed


Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is one of the most widely used treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of our review was to examine the research on EIBI. We found a total of five studies that compared EIBI to generic special education services for children with ASD in schools. Only one study randomly assigned children to a treatment or comparison group, which is considered the 'gold standard' for research. The other four studies used parent preference to assign children to groups. We examined and compared the results of all five studies. A total of 203 children (all were younger than six years old when they started treatment) were included in the five studies. We found that children receiving the EIBI treatment performed better than children in the comparison groups after about two years of treatment on tests of adaptive behavior (behaviors that increase independence and the ability to adapt to one's environment), intelligence, social skills, communication and language, autism symptoms, and quality of life. The evidence supports the use of EIBI for some children with ASD. However, the quality of this evidence is low as only a small number of children were involved in the studies and only one study randomly assigned children to groups.

Download full-text


Available from: Brian Reichow, Aug 06, 2014
  • Source
    • "From a theoretical point of view, differentiating between autism subtypes is not crucial because to a certain extent the same three core domains are involved (Allen, et al., 2001) (Buitelaar, Van der Gaag, Klin, & Volkmar, 1999) (Kim, et al., 2014) (Snow & Lecavalier, 2011) (Walker, et al., 2004) and the same type of intervention is applied (Reichow, et al., 2012) (Rutter, 2006). However, in practical terms, subtyping autism is essential for several reasons. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify differences between and determine predictors for Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The motivation behind this is that the criteria for PDD-NOS stated in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - fourth edition (DSM-4) are ambiguous and need clarification in order to formulate more precise and validated criteria. Differences and predictors were derived from the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), a questionnaire which is conducted as part of Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health institutions. Participants originated from a pool of individuals who were assessed at the child- and adolescent psychiatric department of the University Medical Centre Utrecht (The Netherlands). Seventy-two children and adolescents with AD (mean age 9.5 years, SD= 4.2) and 75 with PDD-NOS (mean age 9.6 years, SD= 4.2) were included and analyzed with on 15 items of the HoNOSCA. Independent sample T-test showed that the AD subgroup displayed significantly more problems on the items ‘overactivity, attention or concentration’, ‘scholastic or language skills’ and ‘self-care and independence’ whereas the PDD-NOS subgroup displayed significantly more problems regarding ‘emotional and related symptoms’. Binary logistic regression revealed that more problems on ‘overactivity, attention or concentration’, ‘self-care and independence’ and ‘disruptive, antisocial or aggressive behavior’ are predictive for AD rather than PDD-NOS with respectively OR of 2.06 (95%C.I. 1.34-3.18), 1.75 (95%C.I. 1.30-2.36) and 1.32 (95%C.I. 1.00-1.75). More ‘emotional and related symptoms’ predicted PDD-NOS rather than AD with an OR 1.79 (95%C.I. 1.28-2.49). The HoNOSCA could serve as a rapid and cost-effective instrument to help identify cases of AD and PDD-NOS. Emotional and related symptoms may be useful to formulate new and more precise criteria for PDD-NOS.
    • "The VABS is well established as an outcomes measure and is arguably more clinically relevant than some other forms of assessment, given that parents or caregivers act as informants , and the assessment therefore focuses on how individuals are generally functioning within their day-to-day lives rather than under prescribed testing conditions. In fact, a recent Cochrane review (Reichow et al., 2012) recommends adaptive behaviour as a more suitable measure of outcome than IQ. The fact that older learners within the sample showed larger gains within the VABS assessment may be explained by a number of factors. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research evaluations of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-based interventions for children with autism demonstrate positive outcomes. However, little research has focused on the translation of these evidence-based interventions into service delivery models within existing education systems. In the present article, we provide a description of the comprehensive ABA-based educational model used within TreeHouse School, London, UK. In addition, we analyse progress data over 12 months for a group of learners attending the school. Fifty-three students with autism were tested and then re-tested with the Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS-R). For 23 of these students a repeated Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) assessment was also available. Repeated measures t-tests revealed statistically significant improvements over time on all ABLLS domains and for all VABS scores. These data provide preliminary evidence that an ABA-based educational model can be integrated into the UK system and produce positive outcomes for children.
    British Journal of Special Education 02/2015; 42(1). DOI:10.1111/1467-8578.12090
  • Source
    • "Although behavioral interventions have been shown to be effective in controlled group studies (Reichow et al., 2012; Tonge et al., 2014), individual outcomes vary considerably . Some children exhibit substantial rates of skill acquisition in treatment, sometimes catching up with typically developing peers, whereas others show little or no progress (Klintwall et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2) = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2) = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2) = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age.
    Autism 11/2014; DOI:10.1177/1362361314555376 · 3.50 Impact Factor
Show more