Article

Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD009260

Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 230 South Frontage Road, PO BOX 207900, New Haven, CT, USA, 06520-7900.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 01/2012; 10(10):CD009260. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009260.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence-based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children's functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorder. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), a treatment based on the principles of applied behavior analysis delivered for multiple years at an intensity of 20 to 40 hours per week, is one of the more well-established treatments for ASD.
To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of EIBI in increasing the functional behaviors and skills of young children with ASD.
We searched the following databases on 22 November 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 46, 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to November Week 3, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to current), WorldCat, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. We also searched the reference lists of published papers.
Randomized control trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized control trials, or clinical control trials (CCTs) in which EIBI was compared to a no-treatment or treatment-as-usual control condition. Participants must have been less than six years of age at treatment onset and assigned to their study condition prior to commencing treatment.
Two authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous, from which standardized mean difference effect sizes with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible, which means we assumed individual studies would provide different estimates of treatment effects.
One RCT and four CCTs with a total of 203 participants were included. Reliance on synthesis from four CCTs limits the evidential base and this should be borne in mind when interpreting the results. All studies used a treatment-as-usual comparison group. We synthesized the results of the four CCTs using a random-effects model of meta-analysis of the standardized mean differences. Positive effects in favor of the EIBI treatment group were found for all outcomes. The mean effect size for adaptive behavior was g = 0.69 (95% CI 0.38 to 1.01; P < 0.0001). The mean effect size for IQ was g = 0.76 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.11; P < 0.0001). Three measures of communication and language skills all showed results in favor of EIBI: expressive language g = 0.50 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.95; P = 0.03), receptive language g = 0.57 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.94; P = .03), and daily communication skills g = 0.74 (95% CI 0.30 to 1.18; P = 0.0009). The mean effect size for socialization was g = 0.42 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.73; P = 0.0008), and for daily living skills was g = 0.55 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.87; P = 0.0005). Additional descriptive analyses of other aspects related to quality of life and psychopathology are presented. However, due to the inclusion of non-randomized studies, there is a high risk of bias and the overall quality of evidence was rated as 'low' using the GRADE system, which rates the quality of evidence from meta-analyses to determine recommendations for practice.
There is some evidence that EIBI is an effective behavioral treatment for some children with ASD. However, the current state of the evidence is limited because of the reliance on data from non-randomized studies (CCTs) due to the lack of RCTs. Additional studies using RCT research designs are needed to make stronger conclusions about the effects of EIBI for children with ASD.

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    • "From a theoretical point of view, differentiating between autism subtypes is not crucial because to a certain extent the same three core domains are involved (Allen, et al., 2001) (Buitelaar, Van der Gaag, Klin, & Volkmar, 1999) (Kim, et al., 2014) (Snow & Lecavalier, 2011) (Walker, et al., 2004) and the same type of intervention is applied (Reichow, et al., 2012) (Rutter, 2006). However, in practical terms, subtyping autism is essential for several reasons. "
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    • "Although behavioral interventions have been shown to be effective in controlled group studies (Reichow et al., 2012; Tonge et al., 2014), individual outcomes vary considerably . Some children exhibit substantial rates of skill acquisition in treatment, sometimes catching up with typically developing peers, whereas others show little or no progress (Klintwall et al., 2013). "
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    • "Although behavioral interventions have been shown to be effective in controlled group studies (Reichow et al., 2012; Tonge et al., 2014), individual outcomes vary considerably . Some children exhibit substantial rates of skill acquisition in treatment, sometimes catching up with typically developing peers, whereas others show little or no progress (Klintwall et al., 2013). "
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