Large randomized trials have previously shown that high-dose micronutrient supplementation can increase CD4 counts and reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression and mortality among individuals not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, the safety and efficacy of such supplementation has not been established in the context of HAART.
To test the hypothesis that high-dose multivitamin supplementation vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation decreases the risk of HIV disease progression or death and improves immunological, virological, and nutritional parameters in patients with HIV initiating HAART.
A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of high-dose vs standard-dose multivitamin supplementation for 24 months in 3418 patients with HIV initiating HAART between November 2006 and November 2008 in 7 clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. INTERVENTION The provision of daily oral supplements of vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E at high levels or standard levels of the recommended dietary allowance.
The composite of HIV disease progression or death from any cause.
The study was stopped early in March 2009 because of evidence of increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) in patients receiving the high-dose multivitamin supplement. At the time of stopping, 3418 patients were enrolled (median follow-up, 15 months), and there were 2374 HIV disease progression events and 453 observed deaths (2460 total combined events). Compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplementation, high-dose supplementation did not reduce the risk of HIV disease progression or death. The absolute risk of HIV progression or death was 72% in the high-dose group vs 72% in the standard-dose group (risk ratio [RR], 1.00; 95% CI, 0.96-1.04). High-dose supplementation had no effect on CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level concentration, but increased the risk of ALT elevations (1239 events per 1215 person-years vs 879 events per 1236 person-years; RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.87) vs standard-dose supplementation. CONCLUSION In adults receiving HAART, use of high-dose multivitamin supplements compared with standard-dose multivitamin supplements did not result in a decrease in HIV disease progression or death but may have resulted in an increase in ALT levels.
Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00383669.
"A recently completed trial from Tanzania compared the effects of high doses of supplements including vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E with standard doses at the recommended dietary allowance level
. High-dose supplementation had no effect on several key measures that reveal HIV disease progression—CD4 count, plasma viral load, body mass index, or hemoglobin level concentration—and did not reduce death or disease progression risks for HIV-infected patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundUse of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconstitution is incomplete and significant mortality and opportunistic infections occur in spite of HAART. There is insufficient research information on whether multivitamin supplementation may be beneficial as adjunct therapy for HIV-infected individuals taking HAART. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA) of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda.Methods/DesignWe are using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study design. Eligible patients are HIV-positive adults aged at least 18 years, and are randomized to receive either a placebo; or multivitamins that include a single RDA of the following vitamins: 1.4 mg B1, 1.4 mg B2, 1.9 mg B6, 2.6 mcg B12, 18 mg niacin, 70 mg C, 10 mg E, and 0.4 mg folic acid. Participants are followed for up to 18 months with evaluations at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The study is primarily powered to examine the effects on immune reconstitution, weight gain, and quality of life. In addition, we will examine the effects on other secondary outcomes including the risks of development of new or recurrent disease progression event, including all-cause mortality; ARV regimen change from first- to second-line therapy; and other adverse events as indicated by incident peripheral neuropathy, severe anemia, or diarrhea.DiscussionsThe conduct of this trial provides an opportunity to evaluate the potential benefits of this affordable adjunct therapy (multivitamin supplementation) among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in a developing country setting.Trial registrationClinical Trial Registration-URL:
http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01228578
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Maintaining vitamin D sufficiency may decrease the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. We present the first prospective study of vitamin D among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults receiving antiretrovirals in sub-Saharan Africa.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was assessed at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for 1103 HIV-infected adults enrolled in a trial of multivitamins (not including vitamin D) in Tanzania. Participants were prospectively followed at monthly visits at which trained physicians performed a clinical examination and nurses took anthropometric measurements and assessed self-reported symptoms. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of morbidity outcomes.
After multivariate adjustment, vitamin D deficiency (defined as a concentration of <20 ng/mL) had a significantly greater association with incident pulmonary tuberculosis, compared with vitamin D sufficiency (HR, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-7.41; P = .027), but no association was found for vitamin D insufficiency (defined as a concentration of 20-30 ng/mL; P = .687). Deficiency was also significantly associated with incident oral thrush (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01-3.81; P = .046), wasting (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.33-7.24; P = .009), and >10% weight loss (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.13-3.91; P = .019). Wasting results were robust to exclusion of individuals experiencing pulmonary tuberculosis. Vitamin D status was not associated with incident malaria, pneumonia, or anemia.
Vitamin D supplementation trials for adults receiving ART appear to be warranted.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2012; 207(3). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jis693 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Prospective studies of serum albumin concentration measurement as a low-cost predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression are needed for individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings.
Serum albumin concentration was measured at ART initiation for 2145 adults in Tanzania who were enrolled in a trial examining the effect of multivitamins on HIV disease progression. Participants were prospectively followed for mortality, morbidity, and anthropometric outcomes at monthly visits (median follow-up duration, 21.2 months). Proportional hazard models were used to analyze mortality, morbidity, and nutritional outcomes, while generalized estimating equations were used to analyze CD4(+) T-cell counts.
Individuals with hypoalbuminemia (defined as a serum albumin concentration of <35 g/L) at ART initiation had a hazard of death that was 4.52 times (95% confidence interval, 3.37-6.07; P < .001) that of individuals with serum albumin concentrations of ≥ 35 g/L, after multivariate adjustment. Hypoalbuminemia was also independently associated with the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (P < .001), severe anemia (P < .001), wasting (P = .002), and >10% weight loss (P = .012). Secondary analyses suggested that serum albumin concentrations of <38 g/L were associated with increased mortality and incident pulmonary tuberculosis. There was no association between serum albumin concentration and changes in CD4(+) T-cell counts (P = .121).
Serum albumin concentrations can identify adults initiating ART who are at high risk for mortality and selected morbidities. Future research is needed to identify and manage conditions that reduce the serum albumin concentration.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; 207(9). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit027 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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