Simulation and Computer-Animated Devices: The New Minimally Invasive Skills Training Paradigm
Simulation PeriOperative Resource for Training and Learning, University of Minnesota, D509 Mayo Memorial Building, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.Urologic Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.2). 09/2008; 35(3):519-31, x. DOI: 10.1016/j.ucl.2008.05.008
Complex surgical technologies, restricted resident work hours, and limited case volumes in surgical practice have created new challenges to surgical education. At the same time, maintenance of established skills and development of new skills are becoming increasingly important for surgeons, especially skills related to technically challenging minimally invasive surgical therapies. In addition, minimally invasive therapies are highly dependent on uniquely specialized teams of health care workers. For all of these reasons, simulation is gaining attention in surgical education for the development and refinement of minimally invasive surgical skills and technique. This article summarizes developments and challenges related to simulation in surgical education, especially as it relates to minimally invasive surgical therapies in the field of urology.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, a self-adaptive algorithm of a packet scheduler is addressed as a crucial method of high-speed transmission of multimedia traffic in a shared wireless link, in accordance with new architectural functions. In the slot budget that is updated sequentially in the order of priorities of applications and sessions, adaptive modulation and coding options are considered to take into account radio links subject to fading and interference. The dedicated local packet scheduler that is in control of each type of application employs an application-sensitive scheduling algorithm. For real-time scheduler, the forward-equilibrium algorithm is introduced to consider the future state of delay. When it comes to non real-time scheduler, the adaptive-fair-selection algorithm is developed to provide the fairness between sessions. The global packet scheduler manages the overall operation of the dedicated local packet schedulers and supervises the slot budget in each transmission-time-interval making a final decision. The scheduler can provide the local fairness between sessions in each service class. Related to the bounds on delay, real-time sessions can be served with predefined requirements at the cost of increased packet dropping rates. Implementation complexity is thought to be simple, providing a low-complexity algorithm in the local scheduler for the nonreal-time class.Communication Technology Proceedings, 2003. ICCT 2003. International Conference on; 05/2003
Article: Low-Fidelity Ureteroscopy Models[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For several reasons, there has been pressure to seek alternatives to the Halstedian method of surgical training, both for residents and for practicing surgeons faced with a new procedure. The use of bench models to train urology residents in order to maximize their operating-room experience is becoming popular. Realistic latex models and virtual-reality simulators have been introduced. However, the model does not have to look realistic as long as the trainee can practice the pertinent steps of the procedure using the same skills: training on a well-designed low-fidelity model confers the same benefit as training on a high-fidelity model. Bench model training in ureteroscopy appears to have a durable effect on the clinical performance of surgical residents. More research is necessary to validate training on bench models and may lead to more objective measures of surgical competency.Journal of Endourology 04/2007; 21(3):248-51. DOI:10.1089/end.2007.9984 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Escalating healthcare costs in Singapore have produced a significant movement of patients into ambulatory care, and the consequent dearth of clinical teaching materials. This deficiency has likewise prompted the creation of ambulatory teaching clinics and the use of standardised patients and simulators. In the last few decades, educators have utilised digital technology, for instance, digitally recorded heart and breath sounds, and digitised video vignettes, in medical education. We describe several pedagogical initiatives that we have undertaken at our university school of medicine.Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 01/2009; 37(12):1051-4. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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