The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between Bartonella species antibody (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB)) and polymerase chain reaction assay results in cats with and without fever. Afebrile control cats (39/93; 42.0%) were more likely to have Bartonella species antibodies than cats with fever (29/93; 31.2%). The difference in prevalence of Bartonella species deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in blood of cats with fever (14/81; 17.3%) as compared to afebrile control cats (6/81; 7.4%) approached statistical significance (P=0.0571). Bartonella species ELISA or WB results frequently did not correlate to the presence or absence of Bartonella species DNA in blood. The results of this study indicate that in cats, Bartonella species antibody tests cannot predict whether fever is due to Bartonella species infection and should not be used to determine the Bartonella species infection status.
"Australia: Whole blood DNA from client-owned, domestic cats from Eastern Australia was available for FcaGHV qPCR (n ¼110) (Barrs et al., 2010). Data available for analyses were: sex, age (6 months—2 years or 42 years), neuter status, environment (indoor only or outdoor access), state of domicile (New South Wales, Queensland or Victoria), serology for Bartonella spp IgG (Lappin et al., 2009) and results of PCR assays for Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum (Mhm) (Jensen et al., 2001), Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae (Jensen et al., 2000). Cats were classified as either healthy or sick by the attending veterinarian based on the findings of a physical examination and, where available, medical history. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), recently discovered in the USA, was detected in domestic cats in Australia (11.4%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–19.1, n=110) and Singapore (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 5.9–14.6, n=176) using qPCR. FcaGHV1 qPCR positive cats were 2.8 times more likely to be sick than healthy. Risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection included being male, increasing age and coinfection with pathogenic retroviruses, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or feline leukaemia virus. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected in multiple tissues from infected cats with consistently high virus loads in the small intestine. FcaGHV1 viral load was significantly higher in FIV-infected cats compared with matched controls, mimicking increased Epstein–Barr virus loads in human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans. FcaGHV1 is endemic in distant geographic regions and is associated with being sick and with coinfections. Horizontal transmission of FcaGHV1 is supported, with biting being a plausible route. A pathogenic role for FcaGHV1 in domestic cats is supported.
Virology 07/2014; s 460–461(1):100–107. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.05.007 · 3.32 Impact Factor
"and for PCR assay for Bartonella spp. DNA on the day of collection
[12,14]. One aliquot of each blood sample (500 μL) in EDTA was stored at −80°C for bacterial culture, pending results of the Bartonella spp. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months.
Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture.
While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026).
In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months.
"are vector-borne bacteria known to be transmitted by Ctenocephalides felis fleas, although ticks and other arthropods have also been implicated as vectors , . Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. koehlerae commonly infect domestic cats, but infection in non-domestic felids has not been extensively characterized , . Although domestic cats may not generally display clinical signs, even when bacteremic, human infection can cause serious disease including bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis (“cat scratch disease”). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e31403. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0031403 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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