Calcium-phosphate levels and cardiovascular disease in community-dwelling adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
ABSTRACT Calcium-phosphate levels, linked to vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, may represent novel risk factors for coronary heart disease, stroke, and death in community-dwelling adults.
We tested this hypothesis over 12.6 years of follow-up in the prospective, community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 15,732).
At baseline, mean (SD) values were 9.8 (0.4) mg/dL for serum calcium, 3.4 (0.5) mg/dL for serum phosphate, 33.6 (5.3) mg(2)/dL(2) for calcium-phosphate product, 54.2 (5.7) years for age, and 93.1 (21.5) mL/min per 1.73 m(2) for glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Shared associations of calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product included older age, female sex, African American race, cigarette-years, current cigarette smoking, low body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low serum albumin, low GFR, low caloric intake, and phosphorus intake. With adjustment for age, demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, albumin, and GFR, calcium-associated hazards ratios for coronary heart disease, stroke, and death were, respectively, 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.96-1.06), 1.16 (1.07-1.26, P = .0005), and 1.03 (0.98-1.08); phosphate-associated hazards ratios were 1.03 (0.98-1.08), 1.11 (1.02-1.21, P = .0219), and 1.14 (1.09-1.20, P < .0001); calcium-phosphate product-associated hazards ratios were 1.03 (0.98-1.08), 1.15 (1.05-1.26, P = .0017), and 1.15 (1.09-1.20, P < .0001).
Although calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product levels exhibit complex associations with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, they may be potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke and death in community-dwelling adults.
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ABSTRACT: Sodium bicarbonate (0.05%) and phosphate (0.3%) were combined individually with 5% sorbitol and 4% sugar as cryoprotectant in Alaska pollock surimi. Ten kilograms of prepared surimi were frozen either conventionally (C) (2-in thick blocks; plate freezer), fast (F) (∼0.25-in thick sheets; plate freezer), or slow (S) (2-in thick blocks; blast freezer). The effect of ingredient (sodium bicarbonate [S] or phosphate [P]) and freezing method (C, F or S) were evaluated with regard to gel texture (puncture force and penetration distance), water retention ability, and chemical properties (salt-soluble proteins [SSPs], total sulfhydryl groups and pH) at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months frozen storage (−30C). Ingredient, freezing method, and frozen storage period were found to significantly (P < 0.05) affect puncture force, penetration distance, SSPs and water retention ability. Sodium bicarbonate combined with conventional and fast freezing tended to result in improved values for these measurements as well.Practical ApplicationsListing phosphate on the ingredient label of a product is sometimes viewed negatively by consumers. Therefore, finding ingredients to effectively replace phosphate without losing the positive functional abilities of phosphate would be desired. The ability of sodium bicarbonate to meet and exceed performance expectations of phosphate as a cryoprotectant of Alaska pollock fish proteins during 12 months of frozen storage would allow for the effective replacement of phosphate in this application.Journal of Food Quality 10/2014; 37(5). DOI:10.1111/jfq.12099 · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To study the relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV in Chinese subjects. Methods The relation between serum calcium level and elevated BaPWV was studied in 9 615 subjects. The mean value of left and right BaPWV was analyzed. BaPWV was defined as high when it was. 1 752.5 cm/s (the upper quartile) either side. Results The BaPWV and its elevated percentage progressively increased across the quartiles of the serum calcium level (P<0.05). The prevalence of elevated BaPWV was significantly higher in subjects of the second, third and highest quartiles than in those of the lowest quartile (26.9%, 28.4%, and 33.2% vs 23.7%, P=0.0116, P=0.0004, and P<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of elevated BaPWV was 1.32-fold higher in subjects of the highest quartile than in those of the lowest quartile (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60). Conclusion The elevated serum calcium level is related to an elevated BaPWV and a higher risk of arterial stiffness, independent of conventional risk factors, in middle-aged and elderly Chinese subjects.Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 08/2014; 27(8):594-600. DOI:10.3967/bes2014.091 · 1.26 Impact Factor