Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate allergenicity: potential haptenation mechanisms.
ABSTRACT Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) and its disulfide, tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD), are rubber accelerators and contact allergens that cross-react in some individuals.
This study explored potential protein haptenation mechanisms of ZDEC and its oxidation products.
ZDEC oxidation/reduction products and sites of protein binding were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was employed to probe haptenation mechanisms of ZDEC by examining its allergenicity along with its oxidation products and through elimination of oxidation and chelation mechanisms by substituting cobalt for zinc [cobalt (II) dithiocarbamate, CoDEC].
Oxidation of ZDEC by hypochlorous acid (bleach, HOCl), iodine, or hydrogen peroxide resulted in production of TETD, tetraethylthiocarbamoyl disulfide, and tetraethyldicarbamoyl disulfide (TEDCD). Albumin thiols reduced TETD with subsequent mixed disulfide formation/haptenation. ZDEC directly chelated the copper ion on the active site of the superoxide dismutase, whereas CoDEC did not bind to Cu proteins or form mixed disulfides with free thiols. ZDEC, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, TEDCD, and TETD were all positive in the LLNA except CoDEC, which was non-allergenic.
The thiol is the critical functional group in ZDEC's allergenicity, and haptenation is predominantly through chelation of metalloproteins and formation of mixed disulfides.
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ABSTRACT: Diethyldithiocarbamate methyl ester (DDTC-Me) is a precursorto the formation of S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiolcarbamate sulfoxide, the active metabolite proposed to be responsible for the alcohol deterrent effects of disulfiram. The present study investigated the role of human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes in sulfoxidation and thiono-oxidation of DDTC-Me, intermediary steps in the activation of disulfiram. Several approaches were used in an attempt to delineate the particular P-450 enzyme(s) involved in the sulfoxidation and thiono-oxidation of DDTC-Me. These approaches included the use of cDNA-expressed human P-450 enzymes, correlation analysis with sample-to-sample variation in human P-450 enzymes in a bank of human liver microsomes, and chemical and antibody inhibition studies. Multiple human P-450 enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2D6) catalyzed the sulfoxidation of DDTC-Me, as determined with cDNA-expressed enzymes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the sulfoxidation of DDTC-Me by human liver microsomes is primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4/5, including (1) a high correlation between DDTC-Me sulfoxidation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation; (2) increased DDTC-Me sulfoxidation in the presence of alpha-naphthoflavone, an activator of CYP3A enzymes; (3) inhibition of this reaction by inhibitors of CYP3A4/5 enzymes, such as troleandomycin and ketoconazole; and (4) inhibition of DDTC-Me sulfoxidation by antibodies against CYP3A enzymes. On the other hand, several lines of evidence suggested that the thiono-oxidation of DDTC-Me by human liver microsomes is catalyzed in part by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5, including (1) these human P450 enzymes among others have the capacity to catalyze this reaction, as determined with cDNA-expressed enzymes; (2) a high correlation between DDTC-Me thiono-oxidation and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation, weak inhibition by ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and anti-CYP3A antibodies suggested a minor role for CYP3A4; (3) a high correlation with immunoreactive CYP2B6 suggested involvement of this enzyme; (4) weak inhibition of DDTC-Me thiono-oxidation by furafylline and anti-CYP1A antibody suggested involvement of CYP1A2; and (5) inhibition of DDTC-Me thiono-oxidation by DDTC and anti-CYP2E antibodies suggested a role for CYP2E1. Collectively, these data suggested CYP3A4/5 enzymes are the major contributors to the sulfoxidation of DDTC-Me by human liver microsomes, and CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5 contribute toward DDTC-Me thiono-oxidation by human liver microsomes. This study, in conjunction with others (Madan et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 23:1153-1162, 1995), may help explain the variability in disulfiram's effectiveness as an alcohol deterrent.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/1998; 22(6):1212-9. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A gas chromatographic assay procedure was developed to quantitate the reduction product of disulfiram, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), in blood and plasma. The procedure involved the in situ methylation of DDC prior to the extraction and chromatography of the methyl ester. The minimal sensitivity achieved was 0.2 microgram/ml from 1 ml of blood or plasma. The coefficient of variation about any concentration was 10.5%. Calibration curves having a reproducible nonlinear form were prepared up to 9 microgram/ml. The assay procedure was used to evaluate the stability of disulfiram and DDC in blood. Disulfiram was rapidly and quantitatively reduced to DDC within 4 minutes. The DDC thus formed decomposed in human and dog blood with half-lives of 70 and 100 minutes, respectively. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the chemical form of disulfiram responsible for the ethanol-sensitizing effect.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/1977; 202(3):724-31. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effective risk assessment and management of allergic contact dermatitis require three key factors: adequate hazard identification, measurement of the relative potency of identified hazards and an understanding of the nature, extent and duration of exposure. Suitable methods for hazard identification, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea-pig maximization test, are well established and conditions of human exposure normally can be well anticipated. Thus, the need is for a robust and quantitative method for the estimation of relative skin sensitizing potency. One possible approach is via the analysis of LLNA dose-response data. In the LLNA, contact allergens are defined currently as those chemicals that cause a threefold or greater increase in lymph node cell proliferative activity compared with concurrent vehicle-treated controls. It is possible to estimate the concentration of a sensitizer required to generate a threefold stimulation of proliferation in draining lymph nodes; such a concentration is known as the EC3 value. Using a variety of statistical approaches to derive EC3 values from LLNA dose-response data for 10 chemicals, it has been demonstrated that simple linear interpolation between the values either side of the threefold stimulation index provides a robust assessment of the EC3 value without the need for recourse to more sophisticated statistical techniques. Provided that the appropriate concentrations of test chemical have been selected, EC3 values obtained in this way are reproducible both within and between laboratories and form the basis for examination of the utility of this approach for the estimation of relative skin sensitizing potency.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/1999; 19(4):261-6. · 2.60 Impact Factor