PREFACE: The leadership of Women in Neurosurgery (WINS) has been asked by the Board of Directors of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) to compose a white paper on the recruitment and retention of female neurosurgical residents and practitioners. INTRODUCTION: Neurosurgery must attract the best and the brightest. Women now constitute a larger percentage of medical school classes than men, representing approximately 60% of each graduating medical school class. Neurosurgery is facing a potential crisis in the US workforce pipeline, with the number of neurosurgeons in the US (per capita) decreasing. WOMEN IN THE NEUROSURGERY WORKFORCE: The number of women entering neurosurgery training programs and the number of board-certified female neurosurgeons is not increasing. Personal anecdotes demonstrating gender inequity abound among female neurosurgeons at every level of training and career development. Gender inequity exists in neurosurgery training programs, in the neurosurgery workplace, and within organized neurosurgery. OBSTACLES: The consistently low numbers of women in neurosurgery training programs and in the workplace results in a dearth of female role models for the mentoring of residents and junior faculty/practitioners. This lack of guidance contributes to perpetuation of barriers to women considering careers in neurosurgery, and to the lack of professional advancement experienced by women already in the field. There is ample evidence that mentors and role models play a critical role in the training and retention of women faculty within academic medicine. The absence of a critical mass of female neurosurgeons in academic medicine may serve as a deterrent to female medical students deciding whether or not to pursue careers in neurosurgery. There is limited exposure to neurosurgery during medical school. Medical students have concerns regarding gender inequities (acceptance into residency, salaries, promotion, and achieving leadership positions). Gender inequity in academic medicine is not unique to neurosurgery; nonetheless, promotion to full professor, to neurosurgery department chair, or to a national leadership position is exceedingly rare within neurosurgery. Bright, competent, committed female neurosurgeons exist in the workforce, yet they are not being promoted in numbers comparable to their male counterparts. No female neurosurgeon has ever been president of the AANS, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, or Society of Neurological Surgeons (SNS), or chair of the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS). No female neurosurgeon has even been on the ABNS or the Neurological Surgery Residency Review Committee and, until this year, no more than 2 women have simultaneously been members of the SNS. Gender inequity serves as a barrier to the advancement of women within both academic and community-based neurosurgery. STRATEGIC APPROACH TO ADDRESS ISSUES IDENTIFIED: To overcome the issues identified above, the authors recommend that the AANS join WINS in implementing a strategic plan, as follows: 1) Characterize the barriers. 2) Identify and eliminate discriminatory practices in the recruitment of medical students, in the training of residents, and in the hiring and advancement of neurosurgeons. 3) Promote women into leadership positions within organized neurosurgery. 4) Foster the development of female neurosurgeon role models by the training and promotion of competent, enthusiastic, female trainees and surgeons.
"Comparable gender-associated selection criteria patterns have been reported from other parts of the world . However, with the proportion of female medical students frequently exceeding 50% in many countries, the surgical specialties are beginning to adapt and become more attractive to them [16,17]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specialty selection by medical students determines the future composition of the physician workforce. Selection of career specialties begins in earnest during the clinical rotations with exposure to the clinical and intellectual environments of various specialties. Career specialty selection is followed by choosing a residency program. This is the period where insight into the decision process might help healthcare leaders ascertain whether, when, and how to intervene and attempt to influence students' decisions. The criteria students consider important in selecting a specialty and a residency program during the early phases of their clinical rotations were examined.
Questionnaires distributed to fifth-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools.
229 of 275 (83%) questionnaires were returned. 80% of the students had considered specialties; 62% considered one specialty, 25% two, the remainder 3-5 specialties. Students took a long-range view; 55% considered working conditions after residency more important than those during residency, another 42% considered both equally important. More than two-thirds wanted an interesting and challenging bedside specialty affording control over lifestyle and providing a reasonable relationship between salary and lifestyle. Men were more interested in well-remunerated procedure-oriented specialties that allowed for private practice. Most students rated as important selecting a challenging and interesting residency program characterized by good relationships between staff members, with positive treatment by the institution, and that provided much teaching. More women wanted short residencies with few on-calls and limited hours. More men rated as important residencies affording much responsibility for making clinical decisions and providing research opportunities. More than 50% of the students considered it important that their residency be in a leading department, and in a large university medical center. Only 5% considered it important to do their residency in the country's peripheral areas, while 30% reported interest in a residency in the country's center.
The fifth year of a six-year medical school is an opportune time to provide students with information and guidance on the various specialties and selecting a residency program as they begin to solidify their perceptions and ideas about the various specialties. This study serves as an impetus to medical educators and healthcare leaders to become interested in students' career selection.
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 03/2012; 1(1):13. DOI:10.1186/2045-4015-1-13
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To optimize the exploitation of a new oilfield it is necessary to do computer simulations in order to determine the number and the geometrical positions of oil wells. Mathematical models are used to estimate the evolution of the production of an oilfield according to the 3D geometry of this oilfield, the number of wells used, the geometry of these wells and some economical parameters. An important step is to compute and visualize the oilfield meshing adapted to the mathematical method used in the simulation process. After a brief introduction to oilfields engineering, we describe two solutions to mesh the domain. The first one is to use only parallelepipeds as meshes with an algorithmic computation of neighbours, which allows one to efficiently mesh a huge domain when the oil wells are vertical. When oil wells have a complex geometry, we show how to use Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations to mesh the domain. This work illustrates the growing importance of visualization methods in the petroleum industry
Information Visualization, 1997. Proceedings., 1997 IEEE Conference on; 09/1997
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