Adamantyl-Substituted Retinoid-Derived Molecules That Interact with the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner: Effects of Replacing the 1-Adamantyl or Hydroxyl Group on Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth, Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 Activity
(E)-4-[3-(1-Adamantyl)-4'-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC) induces the cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia and cancer cells. Studies demonstrated that 3-Cl-AHPC bound to the atypical orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). Although missing a DNA-binding domain, SHP heterodimerizes with the ligand-binding domains of other nuclear receptors to repress their abilities to induce or inhibit gene expression. 3-Cl-AHPC analogues having the 1-adamantyl and phenolic hydroxyl pharmacophoric elements replaced with isosteric groups were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition of proliferation and induction of human cancer cell apoptosis. Structure-anticancer activity relationship studies indicated the importance of both groups to apoptotic activity. Docking of 3-Cl-AHPC and its analogues to an SHP computational model that was based on the crystal structure of ultraspiracle complexed with 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoylglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine suggested why these 3-Cl-AHPC groups could influence SHP activity. Inhibitory activity against Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) was also assessed. The most active Shp-2 inhibitor was found to be the 3'-(3,3-dimethylbutynyl) analogue of 3-Cl-AHPC.
"SHP-2 has previously been considered as a potential drug target for cancer therapy3435. Recent studies indicate that the inhibition of SHP-2 can enhance the anti-melanoma activity of IFNα-2b in human melanoma cells36. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) has been reported to have both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing roles in tumorigenesis. However, the role of SHP-2 in tumor immunity remains unclear. Here we observed progressively lower levels of phosphorylated SHP-2 in tumor-associated CD4(+) T cells during melanoma development in a murine model. Similarly, the levels of phosphorylated SHP-2 in the CD4(+) T cells of human melanoma specimens revealed a decrease paralleling cancer development. The CD4(+) T cell-specific deletion of SHP-2 promoted melanoma metastasis in mice. Furthermore, SHP-2 deficiency in CD4(+) T cells resulted in the increased release of inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6, and the enhanced accumulation of tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor-bearing mice. An IL-6-neutralizing antibody reduced MDSC accumulation and inhibited tumor growth in CD4(+) T-cell-specific SHP-2-knockout mice. Our results suggest that SHP-2 in CD4(+) T cells plays an important role in preventing melanoma progression and metastasis.
"Compounds (13) and (14) are orally bioavailable and have protective effect on dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis in mice . In an effort to develop retinoid-derived orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partners that induce apoptosis in leukemic cells, compound (15) was found to inhibit Shp2 (IC 50 : 0.45 μM) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a diverse family of enzymes encoded by 107 genes in the human genome. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs regulate various cellular activities essential for the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. While PTK inhibitors are now used routinely for cancer treatment, the PTP inhibitor development field is still in the discovery phase. In this article, the suitability of targeting PTPs for novel anticancer drug discovery is discussed. Examples are presented for PTPs that have been targeted for anticancer drug discovery as well as potential new PTP targets for novel anticancer drug discovery.
Current pharmaceutical design 03/2010; 16(16):1843-62. DOI:10.2174/138161210791209027 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The author discusses integrated simulation models as an
organizational coordination mechanism. ENVISION, a software technology,
is used to link distributed models, each reflecting the critical aspects
and activities of those involved in the collaborative effort. The system
views created by model integration formalize the relationships,
dependencies, and interactions among the participants and provide a
basis for coordinating changes and decisions. Models such as discrete
event simulation are developed to capture the concerns and critical
variables, parameters, and relationships for each of the members of the
collaborative team. ENVISION links the models to create sharable system
models that help to formally describe the collaborative task, capture
decision streams, and provide a broadly accessible organizational memory
Technology Management : the New International Language; 11/1991
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.