Personality and Physical Functioning Among Older Adults: The Moderating Role of Education
ABSTRACT Objectives.Drawing upon a vulnerability model, this study tested whether low educational level would amplify the negative contribution of risky personality traits, such as high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, on older adults physical functioning.Method.Five hundred and thirteen French-speaking community-dwelling older adults aged 60-91 years (mean age = 66.37, SD = 5.32) completed measures of physical functioning, education, personality traits, chronic conditions, and demographic variables. RESULTS: Results revealed that extraversion and conscientiousness were positively associated with physical functioning, whereas neuroticism was a negative predictor, beyond demographics, chronic conditions, and education. The negative relationship between neuroticism and physical functioning was stronger among individuals with low educational level and was nonsignificant among older people with higher level of education.Discussion.This study is the first to support a vulnerability model, which entails an amplification of neuroticism risk at low education, but a diminishment of neuroticism risk for activity limitations at high education. As a whole, it appears that a focus on either personality or education without taking into account each other provides only a partial account of the predictors of basic daily physical activities in old age.
- SourceAvailable from: Sylvain Laborde[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is now good evidence that athletic success and participation in physical activity can be predicted by personality traits. In this article, we review new studies that have contributed to our understanding of these relationships and outline potential avenues of inquiry to support the development of personality-trait research in exercise and sport. Our review identified a number of novel findings from contemporary studies. In the context of sport performance, new studies have demonstrated that personality traits relate to long-term athletic success, interpersonal relationships, and athletes' psychological states before, during, and after competitions. In the context of health-related exercise, new studies have demonstrated that personality traits relate to leisure-time sitting time, strength and mobility in old age, and unhealthy (addictive) exercise behaviors. There is also evidence that physical activity contributes to personality change. Our recommendations include a more targeted focus on adolescence (as this is the age of greatest change in personality and sport participation) and a greater consideration of consultant personality traits in applied research and professional practice (given their role in intervention effectiveness).Current Directions in Psychological Science 12/2014; 23(6). DOI:10.1177/0963721414550705 · 3.93 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. Prior studies of age-restricted samples have demonstrated that, in older adulthood, neuroticism is negatively associated with difficulties performing specific daily activities. No studies of neuroticism and physical functioning have been conducted on lifespan samples. This study tested the hypothesis that the relationship between neuroticism and physical functioning is stronger in older people compared with younger and middle-aged adults. Method. Data were obtained from two independent French samples (N = 1,132 and 1,661 for sample 1 and 2 respectively) ranging in age from 18 to 97. In addition to reporting sociodemographics, participants completed the Big Five Inventory, the physical functioning scale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and measures of disease burden. Results. In both samples, regression analysis indicated that neuroticism is more negatively associated with physical functioning with advancing age, controlling for gender, marital status, disease burden, and educational attainment. Discussion. In lifespan samples of more than 2,700 adults, neuroticism was more strongly associated with worse physical functioning among older people compared with younger and middle-aged adults. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm this finding and to identify potential mediatorsThe Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 05/2014; DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbu083 · 2.85 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The experience of pain may vary in accordance with personality traits and individual characteristics. Neuroticism is demonstrated to constitute a vulnerability factor among younger and middle-aged pain patients. The combination of openness and neuroticism is associated with high anxiety/depression scores among adult individuals with chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between pain and the personality dimensions of neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness among persons aged 60 years and older. An additional aim was to explore whether such associations are equally gender expressed.Scandinavian Journal of Pain 04/2015; 7. DOI:10.1016/j.sjpain.2014.12.002