ABSTRACT In 2012, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) will introduce measures of adherence to oral hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, and cholesterol-lowering drugs into its Medicare Advantage quality program. To meet these quality goals, delivery systems will need to develop and disseminate strategies to improve adherence. The design of adherence interventions has too often been guided by the mistaken assumptions that adherence is a single behavior that can be predicted from readily available patient characteristics and that individual clinicians alone can improve adherence at the population level.Effective interventions require recognition that adherence is a set of interacting behaviors influenced by individual, social, and environmental forces; adherence interventions must be broadly based, rather than targeted to specific population subgroups; and counseling with a trusted clinician needs to be complemented by outreach interventions and removal of structural and organizational barriers. To achieve the adherence goals set by CMS, front-line clinicians, interdisciplinary teams, organizational leaders, and policymakers will need to coordinate efforts in ways that exemplify the underlying principles of health care reform.
SourceAvailable from: Katherine M Newton
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ABSTRACT: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services provide significant incentives to health plans that score well on Medicare STAR metrics for cardiovascular disease risk factor medication adherence. Information on modifiable health system-level predictors of adherence can help clinicians and health plans develop strategies for improving Medicare STAR scores, and potentially improve cardiovascular disease outcomes. To examine the association of Medicare STAR adherence metrics with system-level factors. A cross-sectional study. A total of 129,040 diabetes patients aged 65 years and above in 2010 from 3 Kaiser Permanente regions. Adherence to antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic, and oral antihyperglycemic medications in 2010, defined by Medicare STAR as the proportion of days covered ≥80%. After controlling for individual-level factors, the strongest predictor of achieving STAR-defined medication adherence was a mean prescribed medication days' supply of >90 days (RR=1.61 for antihypertensives, oral antihyperglycemics, and statins; all P<0.001). Using mail order pharmacy to fill medications >50% of the time was independently associated with better adherence with these medications (RR=1.07, 1.06, 1.07; P<0.001); mail order use had an increased positive association among black and Hispanic patients. Medication copayments ≤$10 for 30 days' supply (RR=1.02, 1.02, 1.02; P<0.01) and annual individual out-of-pocket maximums ≤$2000 (RR=1.02, 1.01, 1.02; P<0.01) were also significantly associated with higher adherence for all 3 therapeutic groupings. Greater medication days' supply and mail order pharmacy use, and lower copayments and out-of-pocket maximums, are associated with better Medicare STAR adherence. Initiatives to improve adherence should focus on modifiable health system-level barriers to obtaining evidence-based medications.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
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ABSTRACT: Low-income, Mexican-American patients with diabetes exhibit high rates of medication nonadherence, poor blood sugar control and serious complications, and often have difficulty communicating their concerns about the medication regimen to physicians. Interventions led by community health workers, non-professional community members who are trained to work with patients to improve engagement and communication during the medical visit, have had mixed success in improving outcomes. The primary objective of this project is to pilot test a prototype software toolkit called "EMPATHy" that a community health worker can administer to help patients identify the most important barriers to adherence that they face and discuss these barriers with their doctor. The EMPATHy toolkit will be piloted in an ongoing intervention (Coached Care) in which community health workers are trained to be "coaches" to meet with patients before the medical visit and help them prepare a list of important questions for the doctor. A total of 190 Mexican-American patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes will be recruited from December 2014 through June 2015 and will be randomly assigned to complete either a single Coached Care intervention visit with no software tools or a Coached Care visit incorporating the EMPATHy software toolkit. The primary endpoints are (1) the development of a "contextualized plan of care" (i.e., a plan of care that addresses a barrier to medication adherence in the patient's daily life) with the doctor, determined from an audio recording of the medical visit, and (2) attainment of a concrete behavioral goal set during the intervention session, assessed in a 2-week follow-up phone call to the patient. The statistical analysis will include logistic regression models and is powered to detect a 50% increase in the primary endpoints. The study will provide evidence regarding on the effectiveness and feasibility of a software tool to help patients communicate with doctors about problems they face with their medications. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02324036 Registered 16 December 2014.Trials 04/2015; 16(1):145. DOI:10.1186/s13063-015-0672-7 · 2.12 Impact Factor