Article

Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life

Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address: .
Neurotoxicology and Teratology (Impact Factor: 3.22). 10/2012; 34(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.ntt.2012.10.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Despite the common use of Thimerosal as a preservative in childhood vaccines since the 1930s, there are not many studies on ethylmercury toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in infants. The knowledge of ethylmercury's potential adverse effects is derived mostly from parallel methylmercury research or from animal and theoretical models. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to examine the relationship between neonatal exposure to Thimerosal-containing vaccine (TCV) and child development. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 196 infants born between January 2001 and March 2003 to mothers attending ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in Krakow. Vaccination history (date and the type of the vaccine) was extracted from physicians' records. Child development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) measured in one-year intervals over 3years. General Linear Model (GLM) and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models adjusted for potential confounders were used to assess the association. RESULTS: An adverse effect of neonatal TCV exposure was observed for the psychomotor development index (PDI) only in the 12th and 24th months of life (β=-6.44, p<0.001 and β=-5.89, p<0.001). No significant effect of neonatal TCV exposure was found in the 36th month. The overall deficit in the PDI attributable to neonatal TCV exposure measured over the course of the three-year follow-up (GEE) was significantly higher in TCV group (β=-4.42, p=0.001). MDI scores did not show the adverse association with neonatal TCV exposure.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Renata Majewska, Jul 01, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
144 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of vaccines given to children of less than seven years of age during the first ten years (1998 to 2008) in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. We worked with the events related to BCG (Bacillus Calmett-Guérin), HB (hepatitis B), DTwP/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis+Hemophillus influenza b), DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis), MMR (mumps, measles, rubella), and YF (yellow fever) vaccines because they were part of the recommended scheme. The number of doses of vaccines given was 3,231,567 with an average of AEFI of 57.2/year during the studied period. DTwP/Hib was responsible for 298 (57.8%), DTP 114 (22.9%), HB 31 (6%), MMR 28 (5.4%), BCG 24 (4.7%), and YF 20 (3.9%) of the reported AEFI. The combination of the AEFI for DTwP/Hib vaccines showed the highest number of systemic (61.4%) and local events (33.8%). Young children (≤1-year old) were more susceptible to AEFI occurring in the 6 hours (54.2%) following vaccine uptake. This study suggests significant differences in reactogenicity of vaccines and that despite limitations of the AEFI Brazilian registry system we cannot ignore underreporting and should use the system to expand our understanding of adverse events and effects.
    02/2013; 2013:853083. DOI:10.1155/2013/853083
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox) and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 08/2013; 10(8):3771-800. DOI:10.3390/ijerph10083771 · 1.99 Impact Factor