Potency testing of rabies and whole-cell pertussis vaccine batches is still performed by an intracerebral (i.c.) challenge test, in conformity with international regulatory requirements. For the i.c. injection, the use of anesthesia is strongly recommended to alleviate the severe pain induced by the procedure. Today, anesthesia is not consistently mentioned in regulatory requirements, in contrast to the times when the potency tests were developed. The introduction of anesthesia is hampered, due to the lack of data on a hypothetical impact of anesthesia on potency estimation. Here, we show the comparative analysis of the extensive batch release data set of a rabies vaccine for human use that was tested in two laboratories of which only one applied anesthesia. In essence, we find that the mean batch test results were similar to each other, demonstrating that anesthesia for i.c. injection does not interfere with potency estimation. Consequently, we recommend the update of regulatory requirements and protocols and support the implementation of anesthesia for i.c. injection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of X-ray photography following injection of iophendylate to verify that intraventricular injections in mice have been satisfactorily accomplished is misleading since it fails to detect leakage into the periphery. Radioactive labelling reveals that a substantial proportion of the injected material is rapidly carried to the periphery in the bloodstream.
British Journal of Pharmacology 05/1974; 50(4):603-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1974.tb08596.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 9 laboratories from 7 countries including both laboratories from the public and private sector participated in a collaborative study organised under the aegis of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines Biological Standardisation Programme in order to establish batch 4 of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for rabies vaccine (inactivated) for veterinary use. Establishment of Ph. Eur. BRP batch 4 was necessary in order to replace Ph. Eur. BRP batch 3, the stocks of which were dwindling. 8 laboratories provided results. Ph. Eur. BRP batch 4 was calibrated against the 5th International Standard for inactivated rabies vaccine in International Units (IU) using the vaccination challenge method of the Ph. Eur. monograph 0451. The International Standard (IS), Ph. Eur. BRP batch 4 and batch 3 are all freeze-dried vaccines prepared by beta-propiolactone inactivation of the Pitman Moore strain of rabies. Based on the results of the study, a potency of 11 IU/vial was assigned to Ph. Eur. BRP batch 4 for rabies vaccine (inactivated) for veterinary use. Nevertheless, it was noted that the vaccination challenge assay used as the "golden standard" for potency determination of inactivated rabies vaccines for veterinary use is a crude assay requiring the use of a large number of animals. Evidence from this study and from the collaborative study to establish Ph. Eur. BRP batch 3 suggests that the assay is difficult to perform and provides highly variable results. The validation of a suitable in vitro alternative is therefore highly recommended, as is the possible improvement of the in vivo assay, which will most likely remain the "golden" standard.
Pharmeuropa bio / the Biological Standardisation Programme, EDQM 01/2005; 2004(1):17-22.
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