Impact assessment of pesticide residues in fish of Ganga river around Kolkata in West Bengal.

Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, Nadia, W.B, India.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.68). 09/2008; 157(1-4):97-104. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0518-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An investigation was conducted from 2001 to 2005 for determining the residual concentration of five pesticides, viz., total-HCH, total-DDT, total-Endosulfan, Dimethoate and Malathion in fish samples collected from various points of the river Ganga. Fish samples were analyzed for pesticide residues using standard laboratory procedures by GC method. It was found that total-HCH concentration remains above the MRL values for maximum number of times in comparison to four other pesticides. The pesticide contamination to fish may be due to indiscriminate discharge of polluted and untreated sewage-sludge to the river. The pesticide contents in some places are alarming. Thus proper care, maintenance, treatment and disposal of sewage water and sludge are most vital and should be the prime thrust for the nation.

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. METHODS: Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. RESULTS: LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38+/-6.30 and 99.02+/-16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057+/-0.007 and 0.109+/-0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548+/-0.754 mum and 8.47+/-0.931 mum and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), alpha-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). CONCLUSION: Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.
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