Impact assessment of pesticide residues in fish of Ganga river around Kolkata in West Bengal

Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, 741252, Nadia, W.B, India.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.68). 09/2008; 157(1-4):97-104. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-008-0518-9
Source: PubMed


An investigation was conducted from 2001 to 2005 for determining the residual concentration of five pesticides, viz., total-HCH, total-DDT, total-Endosulfan, Dimethoate and Malathion in fish samples collected from various points of the river Ganga. Fish samples were analyzed for pesticide residues using standard laboratory procedures by GC method. It was found that total-HCH concentration remains above the MRL values for maximum number of times in comparison to four other pesticides. The pesticide contamination to fish may be due to indiscriminate discharge of polluted and untreated sewage-sludge to the river. The pesticide contents in some places are alarming. Thus proper care, maintenance, treatment and disposal of sewage water and sludge are most vital and should be the prime thrust for the nation.

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    • "Although it is phased out in many western countries, still it is being used in tropical and subtropical regions (EFSA, 2005), causing mass mortality of fish in various parts of the world (EJF, 2003). It also reaches adjoining water bodies via agricultural run-off (Nayak et al., 1995), from sewage treatment plant (Aktar, 2009), accidental spills (Lambert, 1997) resulting in contamination of soil and water. Elevated residue levels of endosulfan in plant ingredients have also been reported (Lorenzatti et al., 2004) and many of these plant ingredients are now increasingly used in aqua-feeds for sustainable aquaculture, thus exposing the aquatic animals to pesticide. "
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    ABSTRACT: The spotted murrel, Channa punctatus were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of endosulfan (8.1 µg l) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr to elucidate the impact of pesticide on fatty acid composition of liver and muscle. After endosulfan exposure, fish from each control and experimental tanks were randomly sampled anesthetized, sacrificed and then the liver and muscle were dissected out for lipid and fatty acid (FA) profile. Results showed that total lipid, cholesterol, and triglyceride and FA in liver and muscle, and phospholipid in liver were significantly affected due to pesticide exposure. In liver and muscle tissues, 28.09 and 32.57% reduction of the total lipid, and 42.82 and 49.75% reduction in triglyceride and FA were observed at the end of 96 hrs of exposure. Reduction of total lipid, triglyceride and FA may be due to their mobilization for energy production to combat stress. In FA, oleic (25.46 to 22.48 % in liver and 25.75 to 21.87% in muscle) and linoleic acids (8.04 to 6.83% in liver and 9.88 to 8.09%) were reduced in both the tissues at the end of 96 hr of exposure. It may be concluded that exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentration of endosulfan had influenced the lipid and fatty acid metabolism of Channa punctatus.
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    • "Synthetic insecticides were also used to control adult mosquitoes by fogging [13]. The continuous use of synthetic insecticide such as malathion, DDT, HCH and deltamethrin for controlling mosquitoes has created diverse environmental problems such as toxicity to non target organisms [14], development of genetic resistance in mosquitoes [15], environment pollution [16] and their non degradable nature results in biomagnifications. Herein, the worldwide continuous efforts to eradicate and control this vector were found ineffective. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.
    Parasites & Vectors 02/2013; 6(1):30. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-6-30 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 75 animals between 1.5 and 8 years old were randomly selected for the study. Of these, 57.8% were cross-bred animals and the rest were non-descript. Moreover, 61.8% of the animals under study were brought for slaughter from local sources and the rest from farm houses. Samples collected from five districts revealed contamination with traces of organochlorine pesticides (0.01-0.22 microg g(-1)) and organophosphorus pesticides (0.111-0.098 microg g(-1)). In general, all the raw meat samples possessed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at the highest level. Contamination was highest in cow meat samples and lowest in chicken samples. No particular district-wise trend was obtained for the pesticides selected for analysis. Subsequent decontamination study revealed that cooking is the best option in reducing pesticide load in raw meat samples. Cooked chicken is the safest foodstuff for consumption.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2009; 169(1-4):37-43. DOI:10.1007/s10661-009-1148-6 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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