Downregulation of genes involved in NFkappaB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells after weight loss is associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity in individuals with the metabolic syndrome: the GENOBIN study.
ABSTRACT The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa-B (NFkappaB) is implicated in inflammatory responses, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, while immune cells appear to play a central role in mediating insulin resistance and can be used as a model to study inflammation and its relationship with insulin resistance. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells of overweight participants with the metabolic syndrome, we evaluated (1) the effect of diet-induced weight loss on the expression of genes involved in NFkappaB activation and (2) their association with insulin sensitivity. The genes studied were: TNF receptors TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B, and IL1R1, TLR4, TLR2, ICAM1, CCL5 and IKBKB.
We analysed data from 34 overweight participants with abnormal glucose metabolism and the metabolic syndrome, who were randomised to a weight-reduction (n = 24) or control group (n = 10) for 33 weeks. The mRNA expression was measured using real-time PCR. Measures of insulin and glucose homeostasis were assessed by IVGTT and OGTT.
In general, the genes studied were downregulated after weight loss intervention. The changes in TLR4, TLR2, CCL5 and TNFRSF1A mRNA expression were associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity index independently of the change in waist circumference (p < 0.05). The change in IKBKB expression correlated with most of the changes in gene expression in the weight-reduction group.
These results suggest that proteins encoded by CCL5, TLR2 and TLR4, and TNFRSF1A might contribute to insulin-resistant states that characterise obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00621205.
Article: The D299G/T399I Toll-like receptor 4 variant associates with body and liver fat: results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4(D299G/T399I)) are still lacking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging), blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790). We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD) and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8) for replication purposes. German TLR4(D299G/T399I) carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender) and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: -15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: -20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat). In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002) and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat) were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014). The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age) and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: -0.99%, GG: -10.62%). TLR4(D299G/T399I) associates with increased total body fat, visceral fat, liver fat and decreased insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic Caucasians and may contribute to diabetes risk. This finding supports the role of TLR4 as a molecular link between obesity and insulin resistance.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(11):e13980. · 4.09 Impact Factor