The TLR5 ligand flagellin promotes asthma by priming allergic responses to indoor allergens

1] Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. [2].
Nature medicine (Impact Factor: 27.36). 10/2012; 18(11). DOI: 10.1038/nm.2920
Source: PubMed


Allergic asthma is a complex disease characterized by eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, mucus production and reversible airway obstruction. Exposure to indoor allergens is a risk factor for asthma, but this disease is also associated with high household levels of total and particularly Gram-negative bacteria. The ability of bacterial products to act as adjuvants suggests they might promote asthma by priming allergic sensitization to inhaled allergens. In support of this idea, house dust extracts (HDEs) can activate antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and promote allergic sensitization to inhaled innocuous proteins in vivo. It is unknown which microbial products provide most of the adjuvant activity in HDEs. A screen for adjuvant activity of microbial products revealed that the bacterial protein flagellin (FLA) stimulated strong allergic airway responses to an innocuous inhaled protein, ovalbumin (OVA). Moreover, Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), the mammalian receptor for FLA, was required for priming strong allergic responses to natural indoor allergens present in HDEs. In addition, individuals with asthma have higher serum levels of FLA-specific antibodies as compared to nonasthmatic individuals. Together, these findings suggest that household FLA promotes the development of allergic asthma by TLR5-dependent priming of allergic responses to indoor allergens.

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    • "For example treatment of BALB/c mice, intranasally sensitized to the chicken egg white allergen Ova, with a mixture of V. vulnificus flagellin B and Ova significantly inhibited subsequent Ova-induced airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation, and TH2-cytokine production [7]. In contrast, in vivo Salmonella flagellin C application stimulated strong TLR5 dependent allergic airway responses to inhaled Ova and primed allergic responses to natural indoor allergens present in house dust extracts [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated vaccines consisting of flagellin and antigen activate TLR5 and induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses. Objective of the present study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which flagellin fusion proteins mediate their immune modulating effects. In a mouse model of Ova-induced intestinal allergy a fusion protein of flagellin and Ova (rflaA:Ova) was used for intranasal and intraperitoneal vaccination. Aggregation status of flaA, Ova and flaA:Ova were compared by light scattering, uptake of fluorescence labeled proteins into mDC was analyzed, processing was investigated by microsomal digestion experiments. Mechanism of DC-activation was investigated using proteasome and inflammasome inhibitors. Immune responses of wildtype, IL-10(-/-), TLR5(-/-) mDCs and Ova-transgenic T cells were investigated. Mucosal and i.p.-application of rflaA:Ova were able to prevent allergic sensitization, suppress disease-related symptoms, prevent body weight loss and reduction in food uptake. Intranasal vaccination resulted in strongest suppression of Ova-specific IgE production. These protective effects were associated with increased aggregation of rflaA:Ova and accompanied by tenfold higher uptake rates into mDC compared to the mixture of both proteins. Microsomal digestion showed that stimulation with rflaA:Ova resulted in faster degradation and the generation of different peptides compared to rOva. rflaA:Ova-mediated activation of mDC could be suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the application of both inflammasome and proteasome inhibitors. Using TLR5(-/-) mDC the rflaA:Ova induced IL-10 secretion was shown to be TLR5 dependent. In co-cultures of IL-10(-/-) mDC with DO11.10 T cells the lack of rflaA:Ova-mediated IL-10 secretion resulted in enhanced levels of both TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) and TH1 (IL-2 and IFN-y) cytokines. In summary, mucosal vaccination with flaA:Ova showed strongest preventive effect. Stimulation with rflaA:Ova results in strong immune modulation mediated by enhanced uptake of the aggregated fusion protein, likely resulting in a different processing by DC as well as stronger TLR5 mediated cell activation.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87822. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087822 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "DC-SIGN can recognize diverse allergens as well, however, leading to a Th1 polarization. Finally, TLR5 can be activated by HDM extracts containing flagellin (34). "
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    ABSTRACT: Allergy is an exacerbated response of the immune system against non-self-proteins called allergens and is typically characterized by biased type-2 T helper cell and deleterious IgE mediated immune responses. The allergic cascade starts with the recognition of allergens by antigen presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells (DCs), leading to Th2 polarization, switching to IgE production by B cells, culminating in mast cell sensitization and triggering. DCs have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in orchestrating allergic diseases. Using different C-type lectin receptors DCs are able to recognize and internalize a number of allergens from diverse sources leading to sensitization. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence highlighting the role of epithelial cells in triggering and modulating immune responses to allergens. As well as providing a physical barrier, epithelial cells can interact with allergens and influence DCs behavior through the release of a number of Th2 promoting cytokines. In this review we will summarize current understanding of how allergens are recognized by DCs and epithelial cells and what are the consequences of such interaction in the context of allergic sensitization and downstream events leading to allergic inflammation. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of allergen recognition and associated signaling pathways could enable developing more effective therapeutic strategies that target the initial steps of allergic sensitization hence hindering development or progression of allergic diseases.
    Frontiers in Immunology 11/2013; 4(article 356):356. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00356
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    • "The recent contribution of flagellin, a bacterial protein present in house dust, in the priming of the allergic response strengthened the hypothesis on the role of microbial contaminating adjuvant in HDM allergy, although future in-depth studies must address the relationships between HDM allergy and TLR5 signaling. House dust flagellin promoted the development of allergic asthma by TLR5-dependent priming of allergic responses to inhaled ovalbumin [60]. Moreover, this TLR5 ligand was shown to stimulate the in vitro production of TSLP in airway epithelial cells as well as in keratinocytes [61, 62]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity.
    02/2013; 2013(4):735031. DOI:10.1155/2013/735031
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