Tailoring Colorectal Cancer Screening by Considering Risk of Advanced Proximal Neoplasia

Regenstrief Institute, Inc, Indianapolis, Ind
The American journal of medicine (Impact Factor: 5). 10/2012; 125(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.05.026
Source: PubMed


Quantifying the risk of advanced proximal colorectal neoplasia might allow tailoring of colorectal cancer screening, with colonoscopy for those at high risk and less invasive screening for very low-risk persons.

We analyzed findings from 10,124 consecutive adults aged≥50 years who underwent screening colonoscopy to the cecum. We quantified the risk of advanced neoplasia (tubular adenoma≥1 cm, a polyp with villous histology or high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma) both proximally (cecum to splenic flexure) and distally (descending colon to anus). The prevalence of advanced proximal neoplasia was quantified by age, gender, and distal findings.

The mean (standard deviation) age was 57.5 (6.0) years; 44% were women; 7835 (77%) had no neoplasia, and 1856 (18%) had 1 or more nonadvanced adenomas. Overall, 433 subjects (4.3%) had advanced neoplasia (267 distally, 196 proximally, 30 both), 33 (0.33%) of which were adenocarcinoma (18 distal, 15 proximal). The risk of advanced proximal neoplasia increased with age decade (1.13%, 2.00%, and 5.26%, respectively; P=.001) and was higher in men (relative risk [RR], 1.91; confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.77). In women aged less than 70 years, the risk was 1.1% overall (vs 2.2% in men; RR, 1.98; CI, 1.42-2.76) and 0.86% in those with no distal neoplasia (vs 1.54% in men; RR, 1.81; CI, 1.20-2.74).

Risk of advanced proximal neoplasia is a function of age and gender. Women aged less than 60 to 70 years have a very low risk, particularly those with no distal adenoma. Sigmoidoscopy with or without occult blood testing may be sufficient and even preferable for screening these subgroups.

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  • The American journal of medicine 10/2012; 125(12). DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2012.05.022 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: Because the relationship between distal and proximal colonic findings remains uncertain, controversy exists over whether proctosigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is more suitable for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We aim to describe the distribution and characteristics of polyps removed in colonoscopy screening. Patients and methods: A prospective registry of a colonoscopy-based CRC screening program was developed on asymptomatic individuals over 50 years. All polyps were removed and characterized. Polyp size and histology were noted. Adenomas were considered advanced if they measured greater than 10 mm or were tubulovillous, villous, or malignant. The prevalence of advanced proximal polyps was determined and patients were categorized according to their family history of CRC. Results: A total of 696 individuals (418 women), aged 57.7 ± 10.3 years, were examined; 45.8% presented a colonic lesion, being adenomatous polyps in 32.7% individuals. Among these, 24.7% were advanced adenomas. Three patients (0.6%) presented invasive CRC. There were no significant differences with respect to sex and family history of CRC between patients with or without adenomas. Adenomas were more prevalent in individuals aged at least 65, irrespective of location (P<0.001). In 65.1% of individuals with adenomatous polyps in the right colon, there were no synchronous adenomas in the left colon (P<0.001). More adenomas were also present in the right colon of patients with no family history of CRC (P<0.001). Conclusion: Most patients with adenomatous polyps in the right colon showed no synchronic adenomas on the left side. Lesions on the right side would have gone undetected if the individuals undergoing CRC screening had been explored with proctosigmoidoscopy.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 04/2013; 25(8). DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e3283614b57 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Screening for colorectal cancer with sigmoidoscopy benefits from the fact that distal findings predict the risk of advanced proximal neoplasms (APNs). This study was aimed at comparing the existing strategies of postsigmoidoscopy referral to colonoscopy in terms of accuracy and resources needed. Methods: Asymptomatic individuals aged 50-69 years were eligible for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical test. Sigmoidoscopy yield was estimated from results obtained in the colonoscopy arm according to three sets of criteria of colonoscopy referral (from those proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, Screening for COlon REctum [SCORE], and Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention [NORCCAP] trials). Advanced neoplasm detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy to detect one APN were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify distal findings associated with APN. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: APN was found in 255 of 5059 (5.0%) individuals. Fulfillment of UK (6.2%), SCORE (12.0%), and NORCCAP (17.9%) criteria varied statistically significantly (P < .001). The NORCCAP strategy obtained the highest sensitivity for APN detection (36.9%), and the UK approach reached the highest specificity (94.6%). The number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy to detect one APN was 6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 7), 8 (95% CI = 6 to 9), and 10 (95% CI = 8 to 12) when the UK, SCORE, and NORCCAP criteria were used, respectively. The logistic regression analysis identified distal adenoma ≥10 mm (odds ratio = 3.77; 95% CI = 2.52 to 5.65) as the strongest independent predictor of APN. Conclusions: Whereas the NORCCAP criteria achieved the highest sensitivity for APN detection, the UK recommendations benefited from the lowest number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 05/2013; 105(12):878-886. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djt117 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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