Carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation allele present with increased levels of cytokine IL-10

Journal of Neuroinflammation (Impact Factor: 5.41). 10/2012; 9(1):238. DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-238
Source: PubMed


Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an inherited late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, characterized both by neurological and cognitive deficits. It is caused by the expansion of CGG repeats (55 to 200 repeats) in the noncoding region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Abnormal immunological patterns are often associated with neurodegenerative disorders and implicated in their etiology. We therefore investigated the immune status of FXTAS patients, which had not been assessed prior to this study.

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 15 asymptomatic FMR1 premutation carriers and 20 age-matched controls. Concentrations of three cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10) were measured in PBMC supernatants using ELISA assays.

We found a significant increase in the concentration of the major anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in supernatants of PBMCs derived from premutation carriers, when compared with controls (P = 0.019). This increase correlated significantly with the number of CGG repeats (P = 0.002).

Elevated IL-10 levels were observed in all premutation carriers, before appearance of the classical neurological symptoms; therefore, IL-10 may be one of the early biomarkers of FXTAS.

Download full-text


Available from: Kim Ellefsen, Oct 08, 2015
31 Reads
  • Source
    • "While not presenting with increased development of similar immune related disorders as female carriers, male carries are more prone to develop other symptomology such as FXTAS. In males with FXTAS, inflammatory profiles, similar to those seen in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, have been observed suggesting that immune dysregulation exists in males as well [18]. However, it is not clear what the immune profile of premutation carriers looks like before the appearance of immune related disorders and whether this profile belies a susceptibility to autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased rates of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders have been observed in female premutation carriers of CGG repeat expansion alleles of between 55-200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. To determine whether an abnormal immune profile was present at a cellular level that may predispose female carriers to autoinflammatory conditions, we investigated dynamic cytokine production following stimulation of blood cells. In addition, splenocyte responses were examined in an FMR1 CGG knock-in mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Human monocyte and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) were isolated from the blood of 36 female FMR1 premutation carriers and 15 age-matched controls. Cells were cultured with media alone, LPS or PHA. In the animal model, splenocytes were isolated from 32 CGG knock-in mice and 32 wild type littermates. Splenocytes were cultured with media alone or LPS or PMA/Ionomycin. Concentrations of cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFNγ, TNFα, and MCP-1) were determined from the supernatants of cellular cultures via Luminex multiplex assay. Additionally, phenotypic cellular markers were assessed on cells isolated from human subjects via flow cytometry. We found decreases in cytokine production in human premutation carriers as well as in the FMR1 knock-in mice when compared with controls. Levels of cytokines were found to be associated with CGG repeat length in both human and mouse. Furthermore, T cells from human premutation carriers showed decreases in cell surface markers of activation when compared with controls. In this study, FMR1 CGG repeat expansions are associated with decreased immune responses and immune dysregulation in both humans and mice. Deficits in immune responses in female premutation carriers may lead to increased susceptibility to autoimmunity and further research is warranted to determine the link between FMR1 CGG repeat lengths and onset of autoinflammatory conditions.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94475. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094475 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dominantly inherited expanded repeat neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the expansion of variable copy number tandem repeat sequences in otherwise unrelated genes. Some repeats encode polyglutamine that is thought to be toxic, however other repeats do not, necessitating multiple pathogenic pathways or an alternative common toxic agent. As these diseases share numerous clinical features and expanded repeat RNA is a common intermediary, RNA-based pathogenesis has been proposed, based on its toxicity in animal models. In Drosophila, double-stranded (rCAG.rCUG∼100) RNA toxicity is Dicer dependent and generates single-stranded (rCAG)7, an entity also detected in affected Huntington's Disease (HD) brains. We demonstrate that Drosophila rCAG.rCUG∼100 RNA toxicity perturbs several pathways including innate immunity, consistent with the observation in HD that immune activation precedes neuronal toxicity. Our results show that Drosophila rCAG.rCUG∼100 RNA toxicity is dependent upon Toll signaling and sensitive to autophagy, further implicating innate immune activation. In exhibiting molecular and cellular hallmarks of HD, double-stranded RNA-mediated activation of innate immunity is therefore a candidate pathway for this group of human genetic diseases.
    Human Molecular Genetics 03/2013; 22(14). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddt130 · 6.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are known to critically influence brain development and functions. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been suggested as a non-pharmacological therapy for a number of developmental disorders, e.g., autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), but human studies so far have led to conflicting results. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the therapeutic impact of n-3 PUFAs on these disorders might be explained by their anti-inflammatory properties and their promoting effects on synaptic function and plasticity, but no clear evidence has been produced in this direction. We evaluated the impact of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), i.e., a major developmental disease and the most frequent monogenic cause of ASD. Fmr1-KO and wild-type mice were provided with a diet enriched or not with n-3 PUFAs from weaning until adulthood when they were tested for multiple FXS-like behaviors. The brain expression of several cytokines and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was concomitantly assessed as inflammatory and synaptic markers. n-3 PUFA supplementation rescued most of the behavioral abnormalities displayed by Fmr1-KO mice, including alterations in emotionality, social interaction and non-spatial memory, although not their deficits in social recognition and spatial memory. n-3 PUFAs also rescued most of the neuroinflammatory imbalances of KOs, but had a limited impact on their BDNF deficits. These results demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation, although not a panacea, has a considerable therapeutic value for FXS and potentially for ASD, suggesting a major mediating role of neuroinflammatory mechanisms.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 07/2014; 49C(1):119-129. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.07.002 · 4.94 Impact Factor
Show more