It is unknown whether adverse birth outcomes are associated with maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in pregnancy, particularly in resource-limited settings.
We abstracted obstetrical records at 6 sites in Botswana for 24 months. Outcomes included stillbirths (SBs), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), and neonatal death (NND). Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, comparisons were limited to HAART exposure status at conception, and those with similar opportunities for outcomes. Comparisons were adjusted for CD4(+) lymphocyte cell count.
Of 33,148 women, 32,113 (97%) were tested for HIV, of whom 9504 (30%) were HIV infected. Maternal HIV was significantly associated with SB, PTD, SGA, and NND. Compared with all other HIV-infected women, those continuing HAART from before pregnancy had higher odds of PTD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1, 1.4), SGA (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6, 2.1) and SB (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8). Among women initiating antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, HAART use (vs zidovudine) was associated with higher odds of PTD (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.8), SGA (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2, 1.9), and SB (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6, 3.9). Low CD4(+) was independently associated with SB and SGA, and maternal hypertension during pregnancy with PTD, SGA, and SB.
HAART receipt during pregnancy was associated with increased PTD, SGA, and SB.
"Some authors report statistically significant SGA associated with HAART use (with or without PIs).50–52 Furthermore, in 2011, Parekh et al described an association between prepregnancy HAART continued throughout pregnancy (without specifying PI use) and very SGA neonates (less than the third percentile).53 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dire conditions of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic and the immense benefits of antiretroviral prophylaxis in prevention of mother-to-child transmission far outweigh the potential for adverse effects and undeniably justify the rapid and widespread use of this therapy, despite incomplete safety data. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has now become standard care, and more than half the validated regimens include protease inhibitors. This paper reviews current knowledge of the safety of these drugs during pregnancy, in terms of maternal and fetal outcomes. Transfer of protease inhibitors across the placenta is known to be minimal, and current data about birth defects and fetal malignancies are reassuring. Maternal liver function and glucose metabolism should be monitored in women treated with protease inhibitor-based regimens, but concerns about the development of maternal resistance, should treatment be discontinued, have been shown to be groundless. Neonates should be screened for hematologic abnormalities, although these are rarely severe or permanent and are not usually related to the protease inhibitor component of the antiretroviral combination. Current findings concerning pre-eclampsia and growth restriction are discordant, and further research is needed to address the question of placental vascular complications. The increased risk of preterm birth attributed to protease inhibitors should be interpreted with caution considering the discrepant results and the multitude of confounding factors often overlooked. Although data are thus far reassuring, further research is needed to shed light on unresolved controversies about the safety of protease inhibitors during pregnancy.
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care 09/2013; 5:253-262. DOI:10.2147/HIV.S33058
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unprecedented, successful collaborative international effort to provide universal access to HIV care, including effective antiretroviral therapy, has reached a crucial point. Global economic downturn, changing donor priorities, and competing priorities in the health sector threaten the target of provision of 15 million people with HIV/AIDS with treatment by 2015, as agreed by the UN General Assembly. This aspiration has received added impetus from the finding that treatment prevents transmission by reduction of infectiousness of patients. In this report we critically review success thus far and examine efforts to optimise delivery of HIV care including antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries for four main domains: treatment strategy, drug dosing, monitoring, and service delivery.
The Lancet 07/2012; 380(9856). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61154-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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