Toll-like receptor-mediated induction of type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells requires the rapamycin-sensitive PI(3)K-mTOR-p70S6K pathway.
ABSTRACT Robust production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is crucial for antiviral immunity. Here we show involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in regulating interferon production by pDCs. Inhibition of mTOR or its 'downstream' mediators, the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinases p70S6K1 and p70S6K2, during pDC activation by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) blocked the interaction of TLR9 with the adaptor MyD88 and subsequent activation of the interferon-regulatory factor IRF7, which resulted in impaired IFN-alpha/beta production. Microarray analysis confirmed that inhibition of mTOR by the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin suppressed antiviral and anti-inflammatory gene expression. Consistent with this, targeting rapamycin-encapsulated microparticles to antigen-presenting cells in vivo resulted in less IFN-alpha/beta production in response to CpG DNA or the yellow fever vaccine virus strain 17D. Thus, mTOR signaling is crucial in TLR-mediated IFN-alpha/beta responses by pDCs.
Article: Innate immune response of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells to poxvirus infection is subverted by vaccinia E3 via its Z-DNA/RNA binding domain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play important roles in antiviral innate immunity by producing type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we assess the immune responses of primary human pDCs to two poxviruses, vaccinia and myxoma virus. Vaccinia, an orthopoxvirus, was used for immunization against smallpox, a contagious human disease with high mortality. Myxoma virus, a Leporipoxvirus, causes lethal disease in rabbits, but is non-pathogenic in humans. We report that myxoma virus infection of human pDCs induces IFN-α and TNF production, whereas vaccinia infection does not. Co-infection of pDCs with myxoma virus plus vaccinia blocks myxoma induction effects. We find that heat-inactivated vaccinia (Heat-VAC; by incubating the virus at 55°C for 1 h) gains the ability to induce IFN-α and TNF in primary human pDCs. Induction of IFN-α in pDCs by myxoma virus or Heat-VAC is blocked by chloroquine, which inhibits endosomal acidification required for TLR7/9 signaling, and by inhibitors of cellular kinases PI3K and Akt. Using purified pDCs from genetic knockout mice, we demonstrate that Heat-VAC-induced type I IFN production in pDCs requires the endosomal RNA sensor TLR7 and its adaptor MyD88, transcription factor IRF7 and the type I IFN feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1. These results indicate that (i) vaccinia virus, but not myxoma virus, expresses inhibitor(s) of the poxvirus sensing pathway(s) in pDCs; and (ii) Heat-VAC infection fails to produce inhibitor(s) but rather produces novel activator(s), likely viral RNA transcripts that are sensed by the TLR7/MyD88 pathway. Using vaccinia gene deletion mutants, we show that the Z-DNA/RNA binding domain at the N-terminus of the vaccinia immunomodulatory E3 protein is an antagonist of the innate immune response of human pDCs to poxvirus infection and TLR agonists. The myxoma virus ortholog of vaccinia E3 (M029) lacks the N-terminal Z-DNA/RNA binding domain, which might contribute to the immunostimulating properties of myxoma virus.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36823. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Role of autophagy in immunity and autoimmunity, with a special focus on systemic lupus erythematosus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated catabolic process that allows cells to degrade unwanted cytoplasmic constituents and to recycle nutrients. Autophagy is also involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, playing a key role in interactions against microbes, in antigen processing for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation, and in lymphocyte development, survival, and proliferation. Over recent years, perturbations in autophagy have been implicated in a number of diseases, including autoimmunity. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial disease characterized by autoimmune responses against self-antigens generated by dying cells. Genome-wide association studies have linked several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the autophagy-related gene Atg5 to SLE susceptibility. Loss of Atg5-dependent effects, including clearance of dying cells and cell antigen presentation, might contribute to the autoimmunity and inflammation associated with SLE. Moreover, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key player in the autophagy regulation, has recently been demonstrated in SLE, confirming an altered autophagy pathway in this disease. In the present review, we summarize the autophagy mechanisms, their molecular regulation, and their relevance in immunity and autoimmunity. The potential of targeting autophagy pathway in SLE, by developing innovative therapeutic approaches, has finally been discussed.The FASEB Journal 01/2012; 26(4):1400-12. · 5.71 Impact Factor
Article: TSC1/2 signaling complex is essential for peripheral naïve CD8+ T cell survival and homeostasis in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway plays crucial roles in regulating both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of TSC1, a critical negative regulator of mTOR, in peripheral T cell homeostasis remains elusive. With T cell-specific Tsc1 conditional knockout (Tsc1 KO) mice, we found that peripheral naïve CD8(+) T cells but not CD4(+) T cells were severely reduced. Tsc1 KO naïve CD8(+) T cells showed profound survival defect in an adoptive transfer model and in culture with either stimulation of IL-7 or IL-15, despite comparable CD122 and CD127 expression between control and KO CD8(+) T cells. IL-7 stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(S473) was diminished in Tsc1 KO naïve CD8(+)T cells due to hyperactive mTOR-mediated feedback suppression on PI3K-AKT signaling. Furthermore, impaired Foxo1/Foxo3a phosphorylation and increased pro-apoptotic Bim expression in Tsc1 KO naïve CD8(+)T cells were observed upon stimulation of IL-7. Collectively, our study suggests that TSC1 plays an essential role in regulating peripheral naïve CD8(+) T cell homeostasis, possible via an mTOR-Akt-FoxO-Bim signaling pathway.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e30592. · 4.09 Impact Factor