[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bicipital tendinitis is a common cause of anterior shoulder pain, but there is no evidence that acute inflammation of the extra-articular long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is the root cause of this condition. We evaluated the histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath in order to compare those findings to known histologic changes seen in other tendinopathies.
Twenty-six consecutive patients (mean age 45.4±13.7 years) underwent an open subpectoral biceps tenodesis for anterior shoulder pain localized to the bicipital groove. Excised tendons were sent for histologic analysis. Specimens were graded using a semiquantitative scoring system to evaluate tenocyte morphology, the presence of ground substance, collagen bundle characteristics, and vascular changes.
Chronic inflammation was noted in only two of 26 specimens, and no specimen demonstrated acute inflammation. Tenocyte enlargement and proliferation, characterized by increased roundness and size of the cell and nucleus with proteoglycan matrix expansion and myxoid degenerative changes, was found in all 26 specimens. Abundant ground substance, collagen bundle changes, and increased vascularization were visualized in all samples.
Anterior shoulder pain attributed to the biceps tendon does not appear to be due to an inflammatory process in most cases. The histologic findings of the extra-articular portion of the LHB tendon and synovial sheath are similar to the pathologic findings in de Quervain tenosynovitis at the wrist, and may be due to a chronic degenerative process similar to this and other tendinopathies of the body.
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2015; 6:63-70. DOI:10.2147/OAJSM.S76325
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and those with prediabetes and compare the findings between the two groups. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-eight patients with DM and 125 prediabetic subjects were randomly enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Demographic data and past history were recorded. Musculoskeletal physical examinations were done by a single rheumatologist. Regression analyses were employed to assess the crude and adjusted effects of determinants on DM musculoskeletal manifestations (DMMMs). RESULTS: Female/male ratio was not significantly different between diabetic and prediabetic patients (4.4 vs. 4.7, respectively, P = 0.9). However, diabetic patients were significantly older than the prediabetic ones (56.6 vs. 52 years, respectively, P = 0.0001); 83.5% of diabetic patients and 52.8% of prediabetic ones had at least one musculoskeletal manifestation (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and shoulder involvement were almost two times more common (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.015) in diabetic patients than in prediabetic ones (73.4% vs. 38% and 21.2% vs. 9.5%, respectively). Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was 48% and 36.5% in patients with diabetes and prediabetes, respectively (P = 0.053). Multivariate backward regression analysis showed age, sex, BMI (body mass index) and DM as the significant determinants in development of musculoskeletal manifestations in all subjects. Age and BMI were the only significant factors associated with musculoskeletal manifestations in both diabetic and prediabetic patients. CONCLUSION: Diabetic and prediabetic patients may show high prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations. In non-diabetic patients diagnosed with CTS, prediabetes might be ruled out.
International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 07/2015; · 1.47 Impact Factor
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