Vitamin D in cutaneous carcinogenesis Part II

Department of Dermatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California. Electronic address: .
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (Impact Factor: 5). 11/2012; 67(5):803.e1-803.e12. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2012.05.044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is a known risk factor for skin cancer but is also the principal means by which the body obtains vitamin D. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D plays a protective role in a variety of internal malignancies. With regard to skin cancer, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D and its metabolites may have a similar protective effect. These noncalcemic actions of vitamin D have called into question whether the current recommended intake of vitamin D is too low for optimal health and cancer prevention. Part I will review the role of vitamin D in the epidermis; part II will review the role of vitamin D in keratinocyte-derived tumors to help frame the discussion on the possible role of vitamin D in the prevention of skin cancer.

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    • "These effects are most likely mediated by the activation of VDR-and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-signalling pathways [19]. In vivo, the study of the effect of vitamin D on the risk of skin cancer is more difficult, given that (a) exposure to UV radiation is considered as the main risk factor for the development of both cutaneous melanoma (CM) [20] [21] and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) [22], and (b) the dietary intake of pre-vitamin D, either through food or vitamin supplements, has an uncertain association, if any, with its activity in the skin [1]. Evidence for the role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of skin cancer is provided by findings on vitamin D receptor as well [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is formed mainly in the skin upon exposure to sunlight and can as well be taken orally with food or through supplements. While sun exposure is a known risk factor for skin cancer development, vitamin D exerts anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on melanocytes and keratinocytes in vitro. To clarify the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis, we performed a review of the literature and meta-analysis to evaluate the association of vitamin D serum levels and dietary intake with cutaneous melanoma (CM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk and melanoma prognostic factors. Twenty papers were included for an overall 1420 CM and 2317 NMSC. The summary relative risks (SRRs) from random effects models for the association of highest versus lowest vitamin D serum levels was 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-3.53) and 1.64 (95% CI 1.02-2.65) for CM and NMSC, respectively. The SRR for the highest versus lowest quintile of vitamin D intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.13) for CM and 1.03 (95% CI 0.95-1.13) for NMSC. Data were suggestive of an inverse association between vitamin D blood levels and CM thickness at diagnosis. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of vitamin D on skin cancer risk in populations with different exposure to sunlight and dietary habits, and to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in improving CM survival.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2014; 50(15). DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.06.024 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    • "k people , who cannot photosynthesize vitamin D under their pigmented skins , are more prone to develop prostate cancers . Research studies reported that Vitamin D plays a protective task in a variety of internal malignancies whereas epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggest that Vitamin D may have a comparable shielding effect on skin cancer ( Tang et al . , 2012 ) . Epidemiology studies argued that the levels of sunlight and cancer are inversely proportional . While coming to breast cancer , Stearns and Visvanathan ( 2013 ) reported that vitamin D reduces the risk of breast cancer development . Vitamin D receptor ( VDR ) gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the susceptibility to b"
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D supplementation appears to be potential for reducing risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases, existing evidence on its benefits and risks is inadequate and debatable. Questions remain as to whether supplementation of Vitamin D playing any role in the above mentioned diseases. In the absence of compelling evidence for benefit, taking supplement is producing any risk or not. While sorting the various positive and negative claims for Vitamin D, it attracts an urgent need for further research and review on reports to answer fundamental questions about the risks and benefits of supplementation. There still remains a great need to advance our understanding regarding the effectiveness of Vitamin D. This review gives an overview on disputes of Vitamin D supplementation that is convincing and interventional regarding burning issues of Vitamin D therapy. Beyond its use to prevent osteomalacia or rickets, the evidence for other health effects of vitamin D supplementation in the general inhabitants is conflicting. It is a well known predictability that any effective substance also has unwanted side effects, so clear cut evidence regarding the safety is required before supplementing Vitamin D for pathological conditions and other health benefits.
    International Food Research Journal 01/2014; 21(6):2075-2081.
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    ABSTRACT: Solar UV (UV)-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on human health. On the one hand, it is the most important environmental risk factor for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer [NMSC; most importantly basal (BCC) and squamous (SCC) cell carcinomas], that represent the most common malignancies in Caucasian populations. On the other hand, the human body's requirements of vitamin D are mainly achieved by UV-B-induced cutaneous photosynthesis. This dilemma represents a serious problem in many populations, for an association of vitamin D-deficiency and multiple independent diseases including various types of cancer has been convincingly demonstrated. In line with these findings, epidemiologic and laboratory investigations now indicate that vitamin D and its metabolites have a risk reducing effect for NMSC. Potential mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hedgehog signaling pathway (BCC) and modulation of p53-mediated DNA damage response (SCC). As a consequence of these new findings it can be concluded that UV-B-radiation exerts both beneficial and adverse effects on risk and prognosis of NMSC. It can be assumed that many independent factors, including frequency and dose of UV-B exposure, skin area exposed, and individual factors (such as skin type and genetic determinants of the skin`s vitamin D status and of signaling pathways that are involved in the tumorigenesis of NMSC) determine whether UV-B exposure promotes or inhibits tumorigenesis of NMSC. Moreover, these findings may help to explain many of the differential effects of UV-B radiation on risk of NMSC, including variation in the dose-dependent risk for development of SCC in situ (actinic keratosis, AK), invasive SCC, and BCC. In this review, we analyze the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for tumorigenesis, prevention, and treatment of NMSC and give an overview of present concepts and future perspectives.
    01/2013; 5(1):38-50. DOI:10.4161/derm.24156
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