Risk Factors for Loss of Visual Acuity among Patients with Uveitis Associated with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: The Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Study

Department of Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 6.14). 01/2013; 120(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.07.052
Source: PubMed


PURPOSE: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for visual acuity (VA) loss and ocular complications in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 327 patients (596 affected eyes) with JIA-associated uveitis managed at 5 tertiary uveitis clinics in the United States. METHODS: Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases (SITE) cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of VA to 20/50 or to 20/200 or worse thresholds and the development of ocular complications. RESULTS: At presentation, 240 eyes (40.3%) had a VA of ≤20/50, 144 eyes (24.2%) had a VA of ≤20/200, and 359 eyes (60.2%) had at least 1 ocular complication. The incidences of VA loss to the ≤20/50 and ≤20/200 thresholds were 0.18 and 0.09 per eye-year (EY), respectively; the incidence of developing at least 1 new ocular complication over follow-up was 0.15/EY (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.17). However, among eyes with uveitis that had no complications at presentation, the rate of developing at least 1 ocular complication during follow-up was lower (0.04/EY; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06). Posterior synechiae, active uveitis, and prior intraocular surgery were statistically significantly associated with VA to the ≤20/50 and ≤20/200 thresholds both at presentation and during follow-up. Increasing (time-updated) anterior chamber cell grade was associated with increased rates of visual loss in a dose-dependent fashion. Use of immunosuppressive drugs was associated with a reduced risk of visual loss, particularly for the ≤20/50 outcome (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.75; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ocular complications and vision loss were common in our cohort. Increasing uveitis activity was associated with increased risk of vision loss, and use of immunosuppressive drugs was associated with reduced risk of vision loss, suggesting that control of inflammation and use of immunosuppression may be critical aspects in improving the outcomes of patients with JIA-related uveitis. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

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Available from: Jennifer E Thorne, Jan 10, 2014
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    • "Although studies that specifically look at the differences between clinical outcomes according to gender have been limited, it is possible to make some inferences from additional retrospective cohort studies [19, 20, 24]. For example, Gregory and colleagues reported the clinical outcomes of patients with JIA-associated chronic uveitis from SITE Cohort Study [19]. In this study of 327 patients, active uveitis statistically significantly increased the risk for developing visual acuity loss while use of methotrexate was associated with a reduced risk of developing such visual loss. "
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    ABSTRACT: Uveitis is a common complication of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) affecting up to 30% of patients with JIA. Although the typical bilateral chronic anterior uveitis associated with the persistent and extended oligoarticular and polyarticular, rheumatoid factor negative variants of JIA occurs predominantly in girls, boys may be more commonly affected in the HLA-B27 positive, enthesitis variant of JIA. While female gender has been associated with the development of the chronic anterior uveitis in children with JIA, the clinical course of JIA-associated uveitis may be worse in boys than in girls. The purpose of this paper is to review the available published literature to determine the role of gender in the clinical presentation and outcomes of patients with JIA-associated uveitis.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tumor necrosis factors (TNF) are a group of cytokines that play a role in systemic inflammation, stimulating the acute phase reaction. They are involved in systemic rheumatologic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, as well as ocular inflammatory conditions in the uveitis spectrum. Several drugs were developed to inhibit the action of TNF, thereby reducing inflammation. The three most commonly used TNF inhibitors in the US are etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. Newer drugs include certolizumab and golimumab. In this review, we discuss the differences in the mechanism of action, route of administration, indication, and efficacy of TNF inhibitors used in the treatment of ocular inflammation. Methods: A review of the literature in the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify clinical trials, comparative studies, case series, and case reports describing the use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in uveitis therapy. The search was limited to primary reports published in English with human subjects from 1990 to the present, yielding 5,238 manuscripts. In addition, referenced articles from the initial searches were hand searched to identify additional relevant reports. After title and abstract selection, duplicate elimination, and manual search, 69 papers were selected for analysis. Exclusion criteria included review articles and case reports on the efficacy of etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. Manuscripts with fewer than 20 study subjects were excluded if other larger studies existed on the use of the same drug for a particular indication. Studies with <6 months of patient follow-up were also excluded, except in the case where no other data were available. Articles meeting these criteria were then reviewed by the three authors for inclusion in this review. Results: Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have been shown to decrease inflammation associated with a number of rheumatologic conditions. Three of the five commercially available TNF inhibitors-etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab-have been studied for their efficacy in treatment of ocular inflammation. Etanercept appears to be inadequate in controlling ocular inflammation and is not recommended for the treatment of uveitis. Infliximab and adalimumab, however, have shown encouraging results in multiple trials. Serious potential side effects such as infection, including reactivation of latent tuberculosis, malignancy, and demyelinating disease, may limit the use of TNF inhibitors in uveitis. Proper screening of patients prior to initiating these therapies may decrease these risks. Discussion: Early success with infliximab and adalimumab has paved the way for new TNF inhibitors and other corticosteroid-sparing drugs to emerge in the treatment of ocular inflammation. Future studies are on the horizon to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of newer TNF inhibitors such as certolizumab and golimumab.
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