Employment and breastfeeding outcomes in a sample of black women in the United States
Saint Anselm College, Department of Nursing, 100 Saint Anselm Drive #1745, Manchester, NH 03102, USA.Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA 12/2011; 22(2):38-45.
Black women have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration than other racial groups have, but the effects of employment on breastfeeding, specifically for Black women, have not been studied extensively. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of work or maternity leave on breastfeeding duration in a sample of Black women. Participants were recruited in the first postpartum week, and then followed monthly for six months or until complete weaning. The timing of returning to work significantly influenced the risk of weaning. Women who returned to work prior to 12 weeks were more likely to wean their babies than both those who returned to work after 12 weeks as well as those who remained at home. Policies that allow for at least 12 weeks' maternity leave would be likely to increase breastfeeding duration for employed Black women. Interdisciplinary research is needed to address health and economic issues of maternity leave and to eliminate racial disparities.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Despite high bedsharing rates, breastfeeding rates are low among African Americans. Objective. Describe the association between breastfeeding and bedsharing; elucidate barriers to breastfeeding in African Americans. Methods. African American mothers with infants <6 months were recruited for this cross-sectional, mixed-methods study and completed an infant care practices survey. A subgroup participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Results. A total of 412 completed the survey; 83 participated in a focus group or interview. Lower socioeconomic status mothers were more likely to breastfeed exclusively or at all if they bedshared (P = .02 and P = .01, respectively). Bedsharing was not associated with breastfeeding among higher socioeconomic status mothers. Breast pain, lack of support, and maternal skepticism about breastfeeding benefits were barriers; the latter was a recurrent theme among nonbreastfeeding mothers. Conclusions. While bedsharing is associated with breastfeeding in lower socioeconomic groups, it is not in higher socioeconomic African American groups. Skepticism about breastfeeding benefits may contribute to low breastfeeding rates in African Americans.Clinical Pediatrics 08/2014; 54(1). DOI:10.1177/0009922814547565 · 1.15 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system.Breastfeeding Medicine 11/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1089/bfm.2014.0023 · 1.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. © The Author(s) 2015.Journal of Human Lactation 02/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1177/0890334415573001 · 1.99 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.