Acetabular bone reconstruction in revision arthroplasty - A comparison of freeze-dried, irradiated and chemically-treated allograft vitalised with autologous marrow versus frozen non-irradiated allograft
ABSTRACT Deficiencies of acetabular bone stock at revision hip replacement were reconstructed with two different types of allograft using impaction bone grafting and a Burch-Schneider reinforcement ring. We compared a standard frozen non-irradiated bone bank allograft (group A) with a freeze-dried irradiated bone allograft, vitalised with autologous marrow (group B). We studied 78 patients (79 hips), of whom 87% (69 hips) had type III acetabular defects according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons classification at a mean of 31.4 months (14 to 51) after surgery. At the latest follow-up, the mean Harris hip score was 69.9 points (13.5 to 97.1) in group A and 71.0 points (11.5 to 96.5) in group B. Each hip showed evidence of trabeculation and incorporation of the allograft with no acetabular loosening. These results suggest that the use of an acetabular reinforcement ring and a living composite of sterile allograft and autologous marrow appears to be a method of reconstructing acetabular deficiencies which gives comparable results to current forms of treatment.
SourceAvailable from: Charles-Henri Flouzat Lachaniette[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The procedure of bone allografting associated with a reinforcement device is widely used for acetabulum revision. However in absence of biologic fixation of the allograft, failure of the reconstruction may occur. We made the hypothesis that it would be possible to load these grafts with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to rescue the osteogenic capacity of an allogenic dead bone and therefore enhance incorporation of allografts with the host bone and decrease the number of failures related to the allograft. We identified 60 patients who had undergone acetabular component revision for aseptic failure of cemented implants associated with massive periacetabular osteolysis and Paprosky type 3A or 3B classification (without pelvic discontinuity) between 1996 and 2001. The study group of 30 patients received MSCs in the allograft and at the host graft junction. The average total number of MSCs received by each patient was 195,000 cells (range 86,000-254,000 cells). The control group of 30 patients had no MSCs in the allograft. Patients were matched for the size of periacetabular osteolysis (Paprosky type 3A or 3B). We compared the evolution of the allografts and evaluated cup migration and revision of the hips as end points at a minimum of 12 years or until failure. Better radiographic graft union rates and less allograft resorption were observed with allografts loaded with stem cells. Allograft resorption was significantly decreased in the group with allograft loaded with MSCs (1.2 cm(2) -range 0-2.3 cm(2)-of resorption on radiographs in the group with MSCs; versus 6 cm(2), range 2.1-8.5 cm(2) in the group without MSCs). The rate of mechanical failure was highest (p = 0.01) among the 30 patients with allograft without stem cells (9/30; 30 %) compared with no failures for patients with allograft loaded with stem cells. Revision of the cup was necessary in nine patients in the control group. No revision was performed in the 30 patients of the study group with MSCs. For acetabular defect reconstruction, loading the allograft with MSCs has resulted in a lower rate of failure as compared with allograft without MSCs.International Orthopaedics 02/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2285-2 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone fracture healing impairment related to mechanical problems has been largely corrected by advances in fracture management. Better protocols, more strict controls of time and function, hardware and surgical technique evolution have contributed to better prognosis, even in complex fractures. However, atrophic nonunion persists in clinical cases where, for different reasons, the osteogenic capability is impaired. When this is the case, a better understanding of basic mechanisms under bone repair and augmentation techniques may put in perspective the current possibilities and future opportunities. Among those, cell therapy particularly aims to correct this insufficient osteogenesis. However, the launching of safe and efficacious cell therapies still requires substantial amount of research, especially clinical trials. This review will envisage the current clinical trials on bone healing augmentation based on cell therapy, with the experience provided by the REBORNE Project, and the insight from investigator-driven clinical trials on advanced therapies towards the future.Bone 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.07.033 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thermodisinfection of human femoral heads from living donors harvested during hip joint replacement is an established processing procedure. This study was designed to examine the influence of heat sterilization on pull out strength of cancellous bone and storage at different temperatures up to 2 years since we had previously studied the storage of unprocessed cancellous bone. Porcine cancellous bone resembling human bone structure was obtained from 140 proximal humerus of 6-8 months old piglets. Pull out strength of screws after thermodisinfection was compared with unprocessed cancellous bone and tested immediately and after 6, 12 and 24 months of storage at -20 and -80 °C. A three-way ANOVA was performed and significance level was 5 %. The thermodisinfected bone showed a pull out force of 2729 N (1657-3568 N). The reduction of pull out strength compared with unprocessed bone over all periods of storage was 276 N on average with 95 % confidence interval ranging from 166 N to 389 N (p < 0.0001). Different freezing temperatures did not influence this mechanic property within 24 months storage and showed no difference compared with fresh frozen bone. Thermodisinfection of cancellous bone preserves tensile strength necessary for clinical purposes. The storage at -20 °C for at least 2 years did not show relevant decrease of pull out strength compared with -80 °C without difference between thermodisinfected and fresh frozen bone. The increase of the storage temperature to -20 °C for at least 2 years should be considered.Cell and Tissue Banking 04/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1007/s10561-014-9442-0 · 1.03 Impact Factor