Article

Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).

Department of Chest Medicine, Institute for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Warsaw, Poland.
European Heart Journal (Impact Factor: 14.72). 09/2008; 29(18):2276-315.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Non-thrombotic PE does not represent a distinct clinical syndrome. It may be due to a variety of embolic materials and result in a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, making the diagnosis difficult. With the exception of severe air and fat embolism, the haemodynamic consequences of non-thrombotic emboli are usually mild. Treatment is mostly supportive but may differ according to the type of embolic material and clinical severity.

Full-text

Available from: Daniel Ferreira, May 06, 2015
9 Followers
 · 
179 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening and a relatively common cardiovascular pathology. Although the pathogenesis of PE is well defined, there is no ideal diagnostic biochemical marker. Previous studies showed an increased ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels in acute PE; however, the relationship between IMA and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has not been examined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of IMA and the relationship with RV dysfunction in acute PE. A total of 145 patients (70 females) with suspected acute PE was enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine patients were diagnosed with acute PE via computed tomographic pulmonary angiography. Sixty-five patients with similar demographic and clinical characteristics were assigned to the control group. All patients were evaluated for RV dysfunction using transthoracic echocardiography. Serum IMA levels were significantly increased in acute PE compared with control group (0.41 ± 0.06 vs. 0.34 ± 0.11, P = 0.001). There was no relationship between serum IMA levels and RV dysfunction. IMA levels were positively correlated with shock index and heart rate. Receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated that serum IMA levels higher than 0.4 put the diagnosis at sensitivity of 53.85% and at specificity of 85.96%. Although IMA levels are increased in patients with acute PE, it failed to predict RV dysfunction.
    Heart Views 10/2014; 15(4):106. DOI:10.4103/1995-705X.151083
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism are recommended to receive anticoagulation for acute treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Fast-acting direct oral anticoagulants, with or without parenteral heparin, have the potential to replace vitamin K antagonists in this setting. Rivaroxaban, a direct Factor Xa inhibitor, is approved in the European Union and the United States for the single-drug treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and the secondary prevention of recurrent VTE in adults. The approved rivaroxaban dose schedule (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily) was derived based on pharmacological data from the clinical development programme to achieve a strong antithrombotic effect in the acute treatment phase and address the need to balance efficacy and bleeding risk for long-term treatment with a once-daily dose in the maintenance phase. Data from dose-ranging studies, pharmacokinetic modelling and randomised phase III trials support the use of this regimen. Other direct oral anticoagulants have also shown favourable efficacy and safety compared with standard treatment, and apixaban (European Union) and dabigatran (European Union and United States) have been approved in this indication. There are practical aspects to rivaroxaban use that must be considered, such as treatment of patients with renal and hepatic impairment, drug-drug interactions, monitoring of effect and management of bleeding. This review discusses the derivation of the VTE treatment regimen for rivaroxaban, summarises the clinical data for rivaroxaban and other direct oral anticoagulants in VTE treatment, and considers the practical aspects of rivaroxaban use in this setting.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Management of Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients is difficult when guidelines are inconclusive. To share a reasonable and homogeneous behavior in such circumstances, four issues, which are felt as problematic by oncologists and surgeons, have been selected; all were uncovered or only partially covered by current guidelines. Results from the literature and author's specific experience in the field were utilized to suggest reasonable solutions to the raised questions. The reported experience is the first to provide real-world management guidance for VTE in cancer patients. The effort of putting together literature review and author's experience brought to the adoption of a common behavior.
    Cancer Investigation 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/07357907.2015.1009631 · 2.06 Impact Factor