BRCA1-associated protein-1 is a tumor suppressor that requires deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization.
ABSTRACT BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), a deubiquitinating enzyme of unknown cellular function, is mutated in breast and lung cancers. In this study, we have shown for the first time that BAP1 has tumor suppressor activity in vivo by showing that BAP1 can suppress tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells in athymic nude mice. We show that BAP1 fulfills another criterion of a genuine tumor suppressor because cancer-associated BAP1 mutants are deficient in deubiquitinating activity. We show for the first time that one of the two predicted nuclear targeting motifs is required for nuclear localization of BAP1 and that a truncation mutant found in a lung cancer cell line results in BAP1 that fails to localize to the nucleus. Furthermore, we show that deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization are both required for BAP1-mediated tumor suppression in nude mice. We show that BAP1 exerts its tumor suppressor functions by affecting the cell cycle, speeding the progression through the G(1)-S checkpoint, and inducing cell death via a process that has characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis. Surprisingly, BAP1-mediated growth suppression is independent of wild-type BRCA1. Because deubiquitinating enzymes are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, this pathway has emerged as an important target for anticancer drugs. The identification of the deubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 as a tumor suppressor may lead to further understanding of how the ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to cancer and aid in the identification of new targets for cancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Uveal melanoma represents the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Although uveal and cutaneous melanomas both arise from melanocytes, uveal melanoma is clinically and biologically distinct from its more common cutaneous counterpart. Metastasis occurs frequently in this disease, and once distant spread occurs, outcomes are poor. No effective systemic therapies are currently available; however, recent advances in our understanding of the biology of this rare and devastating disease, combined with the growing availability of targeted agents, which can be used to rationally exploit these findings, hold the promise for novel and effective therapies in the foreseeable future. Herein, we review our rapidly growing understanding of the molecular biology of uveal melanoma, including the pathogenic roles of GNAQ (guanine nucleotide binding protein q polypeptide)/11, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), IGF (insulin-like growth factor)/IGF-1 receptor, MET (hepatocyte growth factor), BAP1 [breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1)-associated protein-1], and other key molecules, potential therapeutic strategies derived from this emerging biology, and the next generation of recently initiated clinical trials for the treatment of advanced uveal melanoma.Clinical Cancer Research 01/2011; 17(28):2087-2100. · 7.74 Impact Factor
Article: Association of C-terminal ubiquitin hydrolase BRCA1-associated protein 1 with cell cycle regulator host cell factor 1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein ubiquitination provides an efficient and reversible mechanism to regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoint control. Numerous regulatory proteins direct the addition of ubiquitin to lysine residues on target proteins, and these are countered by an army of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). BRCA1-associated protein-1 (Bap1) is a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase and is frequently mutated in lung and sporadic breast tumors. Bap1 can suppress growth of lung cancer cells in athymic nude mice and this requires its DUB activity. We show here that Bap1 interacts with host cell factor 1 (HCF-1), a transcriptional cofactor found in a number of important regulatory complexes. Bap1 binds to the HCF-1 beta-propeller using a variant of the HCF-binding motif found in herpes simplex virus VP16 and other HCF-interacting proteins. HCF-1 is K48 and K63 ubiquitinated, with a major site of linkage at lysines 1807 and 1808 in the HCF-1(C) subunit. Expression of a catalytically inactive version of Bap1 results in the selective accumulation of K48 ubiquitinated polypeptides. Depletion of Bap1 using small interfering RNA results in a modest accumulation of HCF-1(C), suggesting that Bap1 helps to control cell proliferation by regulating HCF-1 protein levels and by associating with genes involved in the G(1)-S transition.Molecular and cellular biology 03/2009; 29(8):2181-92. · 6.06 Impact Factor
Article: Advanced computational biology methods identify molecular switches for malignancy in an EGF mouse model of liver cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The molecular causes by which the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase induces malignant transformation are largely unknown. To better understand EGFs' transforming capacity whole genome scans were applied to a transgenic mouse model of liver cancer and subjected to advanced methods of computational analysis to construct de novo gene regulatory networks based on a combination of sequence analysis and entrained graph-topological algorithms. Here we identified transcription factors, processes, key nodes and molecules to connect as yet unknown interacting partners at the level of protein-DNA interaction. Many of those could be confirmed by electromobility band shift assay at recognition sites of gene specific promoters and by western blotting of nuclear proteins. A novel cellular regulatory circuitry could therefore be proposed that connects cell cycle regulated genes with components of the EGF signaling pathway. Promoter analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested the majority of regulated transcription factors to display specificity to either the pre-tumor or the tumor state. Subsequent search for signal transduction key nodes upstream of the identified transcription factors and their targets suggested the insulin-like growth factor pathway to render the tumor cells independent of EGF receptor activity. Notably, expression of IGF2 in addition to many components of this pathway was highly upregulated in tumors. Together, we propose a switch in autocrine signaling to foster tumor growth that was initially triggered by EGF and demonstrate the knowledge gain form promoter analysis combined with upstream key node identification.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(3):e17738. · 4.09 Impact Factor