Human Gut Microbiota: Dysbiosis and Manipulation

Beijing Genomics Institute-Shenzhen Shenzhen, China.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.62). 01/2012; 2:123. DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00123
Source: PubMed


Available from: Faxing Zhang, Apr 28, 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed neoplasms. In the last decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the relations between the intestinal microbiota and the onset of both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal neoplasms. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. The internationally accepted definition of probiotics is live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. The possible effects on the gastrointestinal tract following probiotic administration have been investigated in vitro and in animal models, as well as in healthy volunteers and in patients suffering from different human gastrointestinal diseases. Although several evidences are available on the use of probiotics against the carcinogen Helicobacter pylori, little is still known about the potential cross-interactions among probiotics, the composition and quality of intestinal flora and the neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa. In this connection, a significant role in cell proliferation is played by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine). These small amines are required in both pre-neoplastic and neoplastic tissue to sustain the cell growth and the evidences here provided suggest that probiotics may act as antineoplastic agents in the stomach by affecting also the polyamine content and functions. This review will summarize data on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastric mucosa and in particular on their ability in modulating cell proliferation, paying attention to the polyamine metabolism.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host. Duolac-Gold is a mixture of seven probiotic bacteria containing three species of Bifidobacteria, two species of Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of Duolac-Gold in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model. IBD was induced by administering 1.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 10 days. After induction of DSS-induced colitis, Duolac-Gold was orally administered at three different concentrations. Interestingly, Duolac-Gold treatment accelerated IBD healing, and anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by weight loss, length of the colon, and a microscopic damage score by histology. The expression of inflammatory related cytokines was measured in colon tissues and serum. Of these cytokines, the expression of interleukin-6 decreased remarkably after Duolac-Gold treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Duolac-Gold treatment is effective in IBD healing by regulating IL-6.
    03/2014; 30(1):27-32. DOI:10.5487/TR.2014.30.1.027
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is known that the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota responds to different antibiotics in different ways and that while some antibiotics do not induce disturbances of the community, others drastically influence the richness, diversity, and prevalence of bacterial taxa. However, the metabolic consequences thereof, independent of the degree of the community shifts, are not clearly understood. In a recent article, we used an integrative OMICS approach to provide new insights into the metabolic shifts caused by antibiotic disturbance. The study presented here further suggests that specific bacterial lineage blooms occurring at defined stages of antibiotic intervention are mostly associated with organisms that possess improved survival and colonization mechanisms, such as those of the Enterococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Akkermansia genera. The study also provides an overview of the most variable metabolic functions affected as a consequence of a β-lactam antibiotic intervention. Thus, we observed that anabolic sugar metabolism, the production of acetyl donors and the synthesis and degradation of intestinal/colonic epithelium components were among the most variable functions during the intervention. We are aware that these results have been established with a single patient and will require further confirmation with a larger group of individuals and with other antibiotics. Future directions for exploration of the effects of antibiotic interventions are discussed.
    Gut Microbes 12/2013; 5(1). DOI:10.4161/gmic.27128