The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study
ABSTRACT Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of school-based sun protection policies, 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Control, which included the EPA's original SunWise curriculum toolkit; SunWise Policy, which included a revised toolkit emphasizing policy; and SunWise Policy plus Technical Assistance, which included the policy toolkit and 3 technical assistance phone calls. The enhanced SunWise Policy plus Technical Assistance intervention led to more new sun protection policies. Use of study interventions for improving sun protection practices such as policy toolkits or brief counseling can be easily interwoven into school hours by school nurses and other health educators.
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- "However, a systematic review revealed that evidence for determining the effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient (Saraiya et al., 2004). In recent years, individualoriented (e.g., Olson et al., 2007; Reynolds et al., 2006; White et al., 2010) and environmental (e.g., Dobbinson et al., 2009; Emmons et al., 2008) approaches to sun protection interventions for teenagers have been introduced. However, there are only very few studies evaluating school-based interventions derived from theoretical models (e.g., Reynolds et al., 2006; White et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p < .001) and time perspective (β = .17, p = .014) were the strongest predictors of intentions; appearance motivation (β = .54, p < .001) and intention (β = -.18, p = .015) predicted behavior. The intervention effected changes in all predictors except self-efficacy. Changes in outcome expectancies (β = .19, p < .001) and time perspective (β = .09, p = .039) predicted changes in intention, while changes in intention (β = -.17, p = .002) and appearance motivation (β = .29, p < .001) predicted behavior changes. Target group- and behavior-specific intervention components are as important for changes in intentions and behavior as components derived from common health behavior theories.Journal of Behavioral Medicine 07/2012; 36(5). DOI:10.1007/s10865-012-9445-x · 3.10 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Sea beam sidelobe interference cancellation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Sea Beam multibeam bathymetric system is in operation aboard research vessels worldwide. While it has contributed greatly in advancing the understanding of the deep-sea floor, several types of bathymetric artifacts have been identified in its contoured output which could be mistaken for sea floor structure. Among those, the "tunnel" effect results from sidelobe interference caused by the near specular return and is most prominent when the sea floor is relatively flat. It is characterized by a trough in the bottom profile produced by Sea Beam. It will be shown that this type of interference can be greatly reduced or eliminated through an adaptive filtering scheme, pending a minor modification of the Sea Beam data acquisition system. The noise-cancelling configuration of the adaptive least-squares lattice filter will be used to process simulated Sea Beam data obtained through REVGEN, a high-fidelity sonar system simulation program.OCEANS '85 - Ocean Engineering and the Environment; 12/1985
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ABSTRACT: Previous research from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) has shown that risk of skin cancer is strongly associated with exposure to radiation therapy. The potential role of ultraviolet radiation exposure in survivors has not been described. The CCSS is a retrospective cohort study designed to investigate late effects among 5-year survivors of children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer between 1970-1986. Data regarding current sun protection behavior were collected on 9298 survivors and 2950 sibling controls. Median age at follow-up was 31 years (range, 17-54). In this cohort, childhood cancer survivors and siblings showed similar patterns of sunscreen use (67% vs 66%). Survivors were significantly less likely to report having sunbathed in the previous year (none vs any in previous year: relative risk (RR)=0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.89-0.95) or use artificial tanning (none vs any in previous year: RR=0.76; 95% CI=0.70-0.83). Compared with survivors without radiation therapy, survivors with radiation exposure showed increased use of sunscreen (RR=1.06; 95% CI=1.03-1.10), and less sunbathing (none vs any in previous year: RR=0.89; 95% CI=0.86-0.92) or artificial tanning (none vs any in previous year: RR=0.62; 95% CI=0.56-0.69). In adjusted multivariable analysis, statistically significant factors for regular sunscreen use in the past summer (vs never/rarely) in the survivor population were being female, having lighter skin complexions, having previously been examined for skin cancer, and having skin that burned when in the sun unprotected. Survivors of childhood cancer self-reported lower tanning practices than siblings. However, because of the potential increased risk of skin cancer from therapy-related exposures, future research should be directed at intervention studies to further reduce UV exposures.Cancer 09/2009; 115(18 Suppl):4374-84. DOI:10.1002/cncr.24581 · 4.90 Impact Factor