[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard therapy for hot flashes has been hormone replacement with estradiol or progestational agents, but recent data suggest that antidepressants inhibiting serotonin reuptake may also be effective.
To evaluate a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (paroxetine controlled release [CR]) in treating the vasomotor symptoms displayed by a general cross-section of menopausal women.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted across 17 US sites, including urban, suburban, and rural clinics.
A total of 165 menopausal women aged 18 years or older experiencing at least 2 to 3 daily hot flashes and must have discontinued any hormone replacement therapy for at least 6 weeks. Women were excluded if they had any signs of active cancer or were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
After a 1-week placebo run-in phase, study participants were randomized to receive placebo or receive 12.5 mg/d or 25.0 mg/d of paroxetine CR (in a 1:1:1 ratio) for 6 weeks.
Mean change from baseline to week 6 in the daily hot flash composite score (frequency x severity).
Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo and 51 to receive 12.5 mg/d and 58 to receive 25.0 mg/d of paroxetine CR. The mean reductions in the hot flash frequency composite score from baseline to week 6 were statistically significantly greater for those receiving paroxetine CR than for those receiving placebo. By week 6, the mean daily hot flash frequency went from 7.1 to 3.8 (mean reduction, 3.3) for those in the 12.5-mg/d and from 6.4 to 3.2 (mean reduction, 3.2) for those in the 25-mg/d paroxetine CR groups and from 6.6 to 4.8 (mean reduction, 1.8) for those in the placebo group. Mean placebo-adjusted reduction in hot flash composite scores were -4.7 (95% confidence interval, - 8.1 to -1.3; P =.007) comparing 12.5-mg/d paroxetine CR with placebo; and -3.6 (95% confidence interval, -6.8 to -0.4; P =.03) comparing 25.0-mg/d paroxetine CR with placebo. This corresponded to median reductions of 62.2% for those in the 12.5-mg/d and 64.6% for those in the 25.0-mg/d paroxetine CR groups compared with 37.8% for those in the placebo group.
Paroxetine CR may be an effective and acceptable alternative to hormone replacement and other therapies in treating menopausal hot flash symptoms.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2003; 289(21):2827-34. DOI:10.1001/jama.289.21.2827 · 35.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen has a key role in the management of women with hormone receptor (HR) positive breast cancer. It is the endocrine treatment of choice in premenopausal women with HR positive breast cancer and is also clinically indicated in significant numbers of post-menopausal women who have relative contraindications to aromatase inhibitors. Tamoxifen is a pro-drug that is metabolised to its active metabolites by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes including CYP2D6, CYP3A, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. The CYP genes are polymorphic resulting in variable enzyme activity. Retrospective clinical data suggests that specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2D6 can lead to null or reduced enzyme activity resulting in worse outcomes for those individuals when treated with tamoxifen for HR positive breast cancer. There is however a lack of robust prospective clinical data on this subject. Commercial tests are now available for the genotyping of CYP2D6 with the aim of individualisation of tamoxifen therapy for patients with HR positive breast cancer. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant drugs such as paroxetine and fluoxetine have also been used to manage tamoxifen induced hot flushes. These drugs potently inhibit the metabolism of tamoxifen by CYP2D6 and thus potentially may lessen the efficacy of tamoxifen. The genetic variations in other enzymes involved in tamoxifen metabolism (CYP3A, CYP2B6, CYP2C19) do not appear to cause any meaningful difference in the efficacy of tamoxifen. This review article will summarize the available published breast cancer data on the interaction between the relevant SNPs for CYP2D6, CYP3A, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 and the efficacy of tamoxifen, their role in individualisation of hormonal therapy and the role of the commercially available genotyping kits.
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 12/2010; 20(2):111-8. DOI:10.1016/j.breast.2010.11.003 · 2.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male breast cancer incidence is 1% of all breast cancers and is increasing. We aim to present an overview of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on clinical management.
Studies were identified by an online search of literature in the MEDLINE database till June 2006 followed by an extensive review of bibliographies.
Increased risk factors include genetic predisposition as in BRCA2 families; testicular dysfunction due to chromosomal abnormality such as Klinefelter's syndrome or environmental factors such as chronic heat exposure and radiation. Clinical assessment with biopsy is the hallmark of diagnosis. Earlier presentations are becoming commoner but there are wide geographical differences. Surgical treatment involves simple or modified radical mastectomy along with surgical assessment of the axilla, either via sentinel node biopsy in clinically node-negative disease or axillary sampling/clearance in node-positive disease. Reconstructions for restoring body image have been recently reported. Indications for adjuvant therapies are similar to that in women. For metastatic disease, tamoxifen is still the mainstay for oestrogen receptor positive disease. For oestrogen receptor negative disease, doxorubicin based chemotherapy regimens are used. In addition, the oft neglected psychological aspects of men having a "cancer of women" are increasingly being recognised.
There is, thus, need for further increasing awareness among men to reduce stigma associated with presentation of symptoms related to breast. This should be in addition to stressing to clinicians the ways of earlier detection and tailor-made "gender oriented" treatment of breast cancer in men.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2007; 103(1):11-21. DOI:10.1007/s10549-006-9356-z · 3.94 Impact Factor
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