One of the proposed revisions for DSM-5 is to rate panic attacks as a separate dimension across all mental disorders. The idea is that panic attacks occurring outside panic disorder are a dimension predicting important clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the proposition for DSM-5 that panic attacks have predictive value for overall psychopathology onset, course, and functioning.
Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS), a prospective population-based study. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (with classifications based on DSM-III-R), 5,571 subjects were selected who had (1) no panic history, (2) a history of panic attacks (but no panic disorder), (3) current panic attacks, or (4) current panic disorder. The impact of panic status on the prevalence of anxiety, affective, alcohol, and any mental disorders; on the onset and persistence of these disorders during 3-year follow-up; and on levels of functioning during 3-year follow-up (as assessed with the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) was examined.
Current panic attacks outside the realm of panic disorder were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders (χ23 = 490.6; P < .001), increased onset of mental disorders (hazard ratio = 4.42; 95% CI, 2.88-6.80), persistence of mental disorders (odds ratio = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.53-4.82), and impaired functioning during 3-year follow-up (F = 69.67; P < .001). Although the impact was smaller than for panic disorder, the associations identified for panic attacks were consistent and significant and were, to a lesser extent, also found for a history of panic attacks.
Given the consistent impact of panic attacks on various aspects of psychopathology, the proposition to dimensionally rate panic attacks across all mental disorders may be of great value for clinical care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety has been linked to onset of cardiovascular disease. This study examines the differential impact of types of anxiety (panic, phobia and worry) on 3-year onset of non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). By investigating anxiety disorders as opposed to anxiety symptoms and by using a reliable diagnostic instrument to assess anxiety, limitations of previous studies are considered.
5149 persons at risk for CVD were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The panic-type included panic disorder and panic attacks; the phobic-type included agoraphobia and social phobia, and the worry-type included generalized anxiety disorder. CVD was self-reported and required treatment or monitoring by a doctor. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographics, behavioural variables, and comorbid somatic and psychiatric disorders. During follow-up, 62 persons (1.2%) developed CVD. Baseline generalized anxiety disorder was strongly associated with onset of CVD (adjusted OR 3.39). Further research should replicate findings and focus on biological underpinnings of this association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of youth at risk for anxiety and unipolar mood disorders (UMDs) can improve public health by targeting those who may warrant early or preventive intervention. This study examined whether endorsing core features of anxiety and UMDs predicted onset of later anxiety and UMDs across the next 7-9 years, and whether having subthreshold or subclinical manifestations of these disorders similarly predicted onset.
Data from this study come from the Youth Emotion Project (YEP), a two-site investigation of common and specific risk factors for emotional disorders. Endorsement of core features of a disorder and subclinical or subthreshold anxiety and UMD diagnoses were determined using data from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) at the baseline assessment. Participants completed annual SCIDs over the course of the next 7-9 years (depending on cohort).
Endorsement of panic attacks, obsessions and/or compulsions, and depression and/or anhedonia predicted onset of panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder, respectively. When including all anxiety disorders in a model, only the presence of panic attacks uniquely predicted anxiety disorder onset. The presence of subclinical or subthreshold panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social phobia at baseline predicted the full onset of these disorders over the follow-up period.
Experiencing some symptoms of anxiety and UMDs in the absence of meeting diagnostic criteria is indicative of risk for later onsets of clinically significant DSM manifestations of these disorders. These individuals should be identified and targeted for prevention programs.
Depression and Anxiety 03/2014; 31(3). DOI:10.1002/da.22250 · 4.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Empirical work has documented a robust and consistent relation between panic attacks and smoking behavior. Theoretical models posit smokers with panic attacks may rely on smoking to help them manage chronically elevated negative affect due to uncomfortable bodily states, which may explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and quit problems.
The current study examined the effects of panic attack history on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, smoking inflexibility when emotionally distressed, and expired carbon monoxide among 461 treatment-seeking smokers. A multiple mediator path model was evaluated to examine the indirect effects of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives as mediators of the panic attack-smoking relations.
Panic attack history was indirectly related to greater levels of nicotine dependence (b = 0.039, CI95% = 0.008, 0.097), perceived barriers to smoking cessation (b = 0.195, CI95% = 0.043, 0.479), smoking inflexibility/avoidance when emotionally distressed (b = 0.188, CI95% = 0.041, 0.445), and higher levels of expired carbon monoxide (b = 0.071, CI95% = 0.010, 0.230) through the sequential effects of negative affect and negative affect smoking motives.
The present results provide empirical support for the sequential mediating role of negative affect and smoking motives for negative affect reduction in the relation between panic attacks and a variety of smoking variables in treatment-seeking smokers. These mediating variables are likely important processes to address in smoking cessation treatment, especially in panic-vulnerable smokers.
The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 04/2014; 40(3). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.891038 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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