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[34] Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes.

Methods in enzymology (Impact Factor: 1.9). 01/1987; 148C:350-382. DOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(87)48036-1
Source: PubMed
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    IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS). 07/2014; 7(6):50-58.
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    ABSTRACT: Groundnut plants exposed to excess nickel (Ni) produced visual symptoms of toxicity that intensified with increasing level and duration of metal supply. Decreased concentrations of pigments along with a marked increase in the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase suggest strong induction of oxidative stress due to excess Ni. The decreased activity of catalase may suggest interference of excess nickel in iron metabolism of plants. The appearance of metal specific toxicity is a likely result of damage predominantly due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at higher (300–400 μM) nickel supply. The threshold of toxicity (10% growth reduction) and toxicity (33% growth reduction) values of Ni in groundnut were 26 and 72 μg g−1 in leaves, 17 and 94 μg g−1 in stem and 45 and 240 μg g−1 in roots respectively.
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Soil pollution with heavy metals is an important environmental problem which affects human and food health. Neotyphodium endophytes are a group of fungi which have their entire life cycle within the aerial parts of many cool-season grasses without any negative symptoms, and increase host tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, four groups of endophyteehost combinations including two genotypes of tall fescue either infected or non-infected by endophyte (75B Eþ, 75B EÀ, 75C Eþ and 75C EÀ) were cultivated by using 10 equal sized tillers in each plastic pot containing Ni contaminated soil at con-centrations of 30, 90 and 180 mg Ni per kg in 3 replicates. Growth parameters including root and shoot dry weight, tiller number of plants and chlorophyll and carotenoid content of shoots were measured at the end of the experiment. Antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, APX, GPX, GR and GST) activities, total content of phenolic compounds and Ni accumulation in the roots and shoots after 10 weeks of growth was also determined. Results demonstrated that endophyte infection had a benefit to the plant growth and Ni tolerance in genotype 75B by improving the antioxidative system and by a reduction of Ni accumulation in the shoots. In genotype 75C, in contrast, the EÀ plants showed more tolerance to Ni stress compared to the Eþ counterparts. It was revealed that the effect of endophyte infection on Festuca plants as the host may be dependent on the host genotype and endophyte*host interaction.
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