Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an idiosyncratic and multifactorial disease process. Bacteria play a role in some patients, by infection or stimulation of inflammation. Staphylococcus aureus (SA) appears to be implicated in a number of infectious and inflammatory mechanisms, and may be particularly relevant in CRS patients with nasal polyps and asthma.
Middle meatus swabs from control and CRS patients collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). Total bacterial count, SA prevalence, and SA abundance were examined with respect to patient demographics and disease characteristics.
Total bacteria, as measured by QPCR, was not statistically different between controls, CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), or CRS with asthma groups (p < 0.09). Total bacterial counts did not correlate with disease severity as measured by Lund-Mackay computed tomography (CT) scores (p = 0.65). The prevalence of SA was similar between groups (15-25%); however, the abundance increased in CRS patients with allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps, and asthma.
The paranasal sinuses are not sterile. SA is implicated in a subset of CRS patients with nasal polyps and/or asthma. Further study is required to predict this subset of patients, and to define the mechanisms of SA pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Despite recent evidence suggesting that Staphylococcus aureus exists within the sinonasal epithelium of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients, certain questions remain. The intracellular environment may provide a protective niche for pathogenic bacteria to evade host immunity and yet provide a reservoir for reinfection. To date, no studies have examined the impact of this bacterial phenotype; therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the role of intracellular S. aureus on postsurgical outcomes.
This study included 51 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for medically-recalcitrant CRS. Sinonasal mucosa harvested at the time of surgery was dually stained with fluorescent molecular probes and imaged using confocal scanning laser microscopy for biofilm and intracellular status. Patients were followed in their early and late postoperative course for evidence of ongoing disease and signs of clinical relapse.
Intracellular S. aureus was identified in 20 of 51 (39%) patients, and all were associated with surface biofilm. Biofilm alone was found in 16 of 51 (31%) patients and 15 of 51 (29%) patients had no evidence of S. aureus. Intracellular positive patients had a significantly higher risk of late clinical and microbiological relapse (p = 0.014). In this study, biofilm status without coexisting intracellular bacteria did not appear to impact on outcomes.
Clinical and microbiological relapse of disease following ESS is significantly associated with intracellular S. aureus. Evidence suggests that this disease association is independent to surface biofilm status. Intracellular bacteria should be taken into consideration when designing novel treatment strategies to lessen the chance of reinfection.
International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 04/2013; 3(4). DOI:10.1002/alr.21154 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the research effort regarding asthma has been devoted to its causes, therapy, and prognosis. There is also evidence that the presence of asthma can influence patients' susceptibility to infections, yet research in this aspect of asthma has been limited. There is additional debate in this field, with current literature tending to view the increased risk of infection among atopic patients as caused by opportunistic infections secondary to airway inflammation, especially in patients with severe atopic diseases. However, other evidence suggests that such risk and its underlying immune dysfunction might be a phenotypic or clinical feature of atopic conditions. This review argues (1) that improved understanding of the effects of asthma or other atopic conditions on the risk of microbial infections will bring important and new perspectives to clinical practice, research, and public health concerning atopic conditions and (2) that research efforts into the causes and effects of asthma must be juxtaposed because they are likely to guide each other.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2014; 134(2):247–257.e3. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.04.024 · 11.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the paranasal sinuses in which bacteria are implicated. Culture-based assays are commonly used in clinical and research practice; however, culture conditions may not accurately detect the full range of microorganisms present in a sample. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of clinical culture of CRS specimens compared with DNA-based molecular techniques.Methods
Ethmoid samples from 54 CRS patients collected during endoscopic sinus surgery were analyzed by both clinical culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. The association between 16S relative abundance and detection by culture was determined using logistic regression.ResultsEach subject had an average of 3 isolates identified by bacterial culture and 21.5 ± 12.5 species identified by 16S sequencing. On average, 1.6 dominant taxa (>10% abundance) per subject were identified using molecular techniques, but only 47.7% of these taxa were identified by culture. Low abundance taxa (abundance <1%) were detected in only 4.5% of cultures. The odds that any organism would be detected by culture were 2.3 times higher with each 10% increase in relative abundance (p < 0.01). Conversely, only 29.5% of isolates identified by culture represented the dominant species, whereas 40% accounted for species with 1% to 10% abundance. Interestingly, 12% of isolates detected by culture were not identified by 16S pyrosequencing.Conclusion
Standard clinical culture is a poor representation of resident microbiota. The incorporation of modern culture-independent techniques into clinical and research practices provides additional information that may be relevant for CRS.
International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 01/2015; 5(1). DOI:10.1002/alr.21428 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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