Prevalence and prognostic effect of sarcopenia in breast cancer survivors: the HEAL Study.

Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, M4-B402, Seattle, WA, 98109-1024, USA, .
Journal of Cancer Survivorship (Impact Factor: 3.57). 10/2012; 6(4). DOI: 10.1007/s11764-012-0234-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and examine whether sarcopenia was associated with overall and breast-cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of women diagnosed with breast cancer (stages I-IIIA). METHODS: A total of 471 breast cancer patients from western Washington State and New Mexico who participated in the prospective Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study were included in this study. Appendicular lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry scans at study inception, on average, 12 months after diagnosis. Sarcopenia was defined as two standard deviations below the young healthy adult female mean of appendicular lean mass divided by height squared (<5.45 kg/m(2)). Total and breast-cancer-specific mortality data were obtained from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registries. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models assessed the associations between sarcopenia and mortality. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 9.2 years; 75 women were classified as sarcopenic, and among 92 deaths, 46 were attributed to breast cancer. In multivariable models that included age, race-ethnicity/study site, treatment type, comorbidities, waist circumference, and total body fat percentage, sarcopenia was independently associated with overall mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.86; 95 % CI, 1.67-4.89). Sarcopenic women had increased risk of breast-cancer-specific mortality, although the association was not statistically significant (HR = 1.95, 95 % CI, 0.87-4.35). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in breast cancer survivors and may be associated with breast-cancer-specific mortality. The development of effective interventions to maintain and/or increase skeletal muscle mass to improve prognosis in breast cancer survivors warrants further study. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Such interventions may help breast cancer patients live longer.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training (PRT) in breast cancer. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published to November 2013 that reported on the effects of PRT (>6 weeks) on breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) (incidence/exacerbation, arm volume, and symptom severity), physical functioning (upper and lower body muscular strength), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in breast cancer patients were included. Of 446 citations retrieved, 15 RCTs in 1,652 patients were included and yielded five studies on BCRL incidence/exacerbation (N = 647), four studies on arm volume (N = 384) and BCRL symptom severity (N = 479), 11 studies on upper body muscular strength (N = 1,252), nine studies on lower body muscular strength (N = 1,079), and seven studies on HRQoL (N = 823). PRT reduced the risk of BCRL versus control conditions [OR = 0.53 (95 % CI 0.31-0.90); I (2) = 0 %] and did not worsen arm volume or symptom severity (both SMD = -0.07). PRT significantly improved upper [SMD = 0.57 (95 % CI 0.37-0.76); I (2) = 58.4 %] and lower body muscular strength [SMD = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.30-0.67); I (2) = 46.7 %] but not HRQoL [SMD = 0.17 (95 % CI -0.03 to 0.38); I (2) = 47.0 %]. The effect of PRT on HRQoL became significant in our sensitivity analysis when two studies conducted during adjuvant chemotherapy [SMD = 0.30 (95 % CI 0.04-0.55), I (2) = 37.0 %] were excluded. These data indicate that PRT improves physical functioning and reduces the risk of BCRL. Clinical practice guidelines should be updated to inform clinicians on the benefits of PRT in this cohort.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2014; 148(2). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3162-9 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: All participants for image samplings provided written informed consent. Conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US) has been widely utilized for musculoskeletal problems as a first-line approach because of the advantages of real-time access and the relatively low cost. The biomechanical properties of soft tissues reflect to some degree the pathophysiology of the musculoskeletal disorder. Sonoelastography is an in situ method that can be used to assess the mechanical properties of soft tissue qualitatively and quantitatively through US imaging techniques. Sonoelastography has demonstrated feasibility in the diagnosis of cancers of the breast and liver, and in some preliminary work, in several musculoskeletal disorders. The main types of sonoelastography are compression elastography, shear-wave elastography, and transient elastography. In this article, the current knowledge of sonoelastographic techniques and their use in musculoskeletal imaging will be reviewed. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 09/2014; 272(3):622-633. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14121765 · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) measurements (baseline BMI and changes in BMI during neoadjuvant systemic treatment [NST]) and clinical efficacy (pathologic complete response [pCR] rate and survival outcomes) in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). We hypothesized that high baseline BMI and increases in BMI during NST are associated with lower pCR rates and poorer clinical outcomes in LABC. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1002 patients, 204 with primary inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and 798 with stage III non-IBC, who underwent standard NST and definitive surgery between November 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012. The median follow-up time for the survivors was 19.6 months (0.4 - 67.8 months). The pCR rates of patients whose BMI increased or decreased were 23.2% and 18.1%, respectively, (p=0.048). The unadjusted overall survival (OS) was significantly better in the group with increased BMI (p=0.006). However, increased BMI was not an independent predictor of pCR and clinical outcomes (recurrence-free survival and OS) after adjusting for other clinical variables. In subset analyses, increased BMI as a continuous variable was an independent predictor of higher pCR rates in the normal BMI/underweight group (odds ratio [OR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-0.71, p=0.015). Increased BMI (BMI change ≥0 vs. <0) was also an independent predictor of pCR (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.00-2.72, p=0.049) in the postmenopausal group. Our results show that increasing BMI shows improved clinical outcome in terms of better pCR rates in normal BMI/underweight group and in the postmenopausal group. These results contradict previously reported findings on the association between high BMI and poor clinical efficacy regarding pCR rate and survival outcomes in early-stage breast cancer. Thus, the role of BMI in breast cancer may depend on patients' clinical characteristics such as advanced stage.


Available from
Jun 2, 2014