Molecular characterization of the CRa gene conferring clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa.

Department of Bioscience and Textile Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano, 386-8567, Japan.
Plant Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.52). 10/2012; DOI: 10.1007/s11103-012-9971-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassicaceae crops, and a number of these crops grown commercially, such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), are known to be highly susceptible to clubroot disease. To provide protection from this disease, plant breeders have introduced genes for resistance to clubroot from the European turnip into susceptible lines. The CRa gene confers specific resistance to the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate M85. Fine mapping of the CRa locus using synteny to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and partial genome sequences of B. rapa revealed a candidate gene encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein. Several structural differences in this candidate gene were found between susceptible and resistant lines, and CRa expression was observed only in the resistant line. Four mutant lines lacking clubroot resistance were obtained by the UV irradiation of pollen from a resistant line, and all of these mutant lines carried independent mutations in the candidate TIR-NBS-LRR gene. This genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggests that the identified gene is CRa. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of a clubroot Resistance gene in Brassicaceae and of the disease resistance gene in B. rapa.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Throughout the world, clubroot disease is one of the most damaging diseases affecting Brassica oleracea. To develop marker-assisted selection (MAS) that could assist the incorporation of durable clubroot resistance (CR) into cultivars, previous genetic analyses have identified several CR quantitative trait loci (CR–QTL). However, the independent and cumulative effects of each CR locus against various isolates have rarely been tested. Previously, we identified one major CR–QTL and four minor CR–QTL in the F2 plants from broccoli doubled haploid (DH) line × cabbage DH line of B. oleracea. In the present study, to clarify their effectiveness for controlling disease involving various isolates, inoculation testing was conducted in genotypes with various combinations of the CR genes, which were selected using the DNA markers closely associated with each CR–QTL. In exploring the overall disease incidence, it was apparent that a single involvement of the major CR gene located in the PbBo(Anju)1 locus, or accumulation of CR genes in the minor CR–QTL, is not enough to confer sufficient resistance. One major CR gene in the QTL PbBo(Anju)1 locus plus two to three minor CR genes conferred moderate resistance. The genotype in which all of the CR genes locating in the five QTL including PbBo(Anju)1 were accumulated showed the highest resistance, and it was broadly resistant against six isolates. Accumulation of several CR genes by MAS is necessary to conduct CR breeding in B. oleracea. Our developed DNA markers can be used efficiently to make selections of required loci for the acquisition of resistance, and use of these markers will be a powerful tool for CR breeding in B. oleracea.
    Molecular Breeding 12/2013; · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.) is susceptible to infection by the biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot. To understand the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the post-transcriptional regulation of disease initiation and progression, we have characterized the changes in miRNA expression profiles in canola roots during clubroot disease development and have compared these to uninfected roots. Two different stages of clubroot development were targeted in this miRNA profiling study: an early time of 10-dpi for disease initiation and a later 20-dpi, by which time the pathogen had colonized the roots (as evident by visible gall formation and histological observations). P. brassicae responsive miRNAs were identified and validated by qRT-PCR of miRNAs and the subsequent validation of the target mRNAs through starBase degradome analysis, and through 5' RLM-RACE. This study identifies putative miRNA-regulated genes with roles during clubroot disease initiation and development. Putative target genes identified in this study included: transcription factors (TFs), hormone-related genes, as well as genes associated with plant stress response regulation such as cytokinin, auxin/ethylene response elements. The results of our study may assist in elucidating the role of miRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation of target genes during disease development and may contribute to the development of strategies to engineer durable resistance to this important phytopathogen.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86648. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F2 populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.
    Plant Molecular Biology 03/2014; · 3.52 Impact Factor