Molecular characterization of the CRa gene conferring clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa.
ABSTRACT Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassicaceae crops, and a number of these crops grown commercially, such as Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), are known to be highly susceptible to clubroot disease. To provide protection from this disease, plant breeders have introduced genes for resistance to clubroot from the European turnip into susceptible lines. The CRa gene confers specific resistance to the clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate M85. Fine mapping of the CRa locus using synteny to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and partial genome sequences of B. rapa revealed a candidate gene encoding a TIR-NBS-LRR protein. Several structural differences in this candidate gene were found between susceptible and resistant lines, and CRa expression was observed only in the resistant line. Four mutant lines lacking clubroot resistance were obtained by the UV irradiation of pollen from a resistant line, and all of these mutant lines carried independent mutations in the candidate TIR-NBS-LRR gene. This genetic and molecular evidence strongly suggests that the identified gene is CRa. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of a clubroot Resistance gene in Brassicaceae and of the disease resistance gene in B. rapa.
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ABSTRACT: An SSR-based linkage map was constructed in Brassica rapa. It includes 113 SSR, 87 RFLP, and 62 RAPD markers. It consists of 10 linkage groups with a total distance of 1005.5 cM and an average distance of 3.7 cM. SSRs are distributed throughout the linkage groups at an average of 8.7 cM. Synteny between B. rapa and a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, was analyzed. A number of small genomic segments of A. thaliana were scattered throughout an entire B. rapa linkage map. This points out the complex genomic rearrangements during the course of evolution in Cruciferae. A 282.5-cM region in the B. rapa map was in synteny with A. thaliana. Of the three QTL (Crr1, Crr2, and Crr4) for clubroot resistance identified, synteny analysis revealed that two major QTL regions, Crr1 and Crr2, overlapped in a small region of Arabidopsis chromosome 4. This region belongs to one of the disease-resistance gene clusters (MRCs) in the A. thaliana genome. These results suggest that the resistance genes for clubroot originated from a member of the MRCs in a common ancestral genome and subsequently were distributed to the different regions they now inhabit in the process of evolution.Genetics 06/2006; 173(1):309-19. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alternative splicing is an important step in controlling gene expression and has been shown to occur for a number of plant disease resistance (R) genes. The specific biological role of alternatively spliced transcripts from most R genes is unknown, yet in two cases it is clear that functional disease resistance cannot be activated without them. We report 12 splice isoforms of the M flax rust resistance gene, a TIR-NBS-LRR class of R gene. Collectively, these isoforms are predicted to encode at least nine different polypeptide products, only one of which is a full length peptide believed to confer functional M gene-specific disease resistance. An additional intron to that previously described was found in the 5' untranslated region. Splicing of this leader intron removes an upstream ORF (muORF) sequence. In some transcripts the leader intron is retained and in this case we predict negligible translation initiation of the full length M gene-encoding ORF. The majority of the alternatively spliced isoforms of M would encode truncated TIR and TIR-NBS containing proteins. Although the role of alternative splicing and the existence and function of the products they encode is still unclear, the complexities of the splicing profile, and the 5' UTR of the M gene, are likely to serve in mechanisms to regulate R protein levels.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2007; 115(3):373-82. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant disease resistance can be triggered by specific recognition of microbial effectors by plant nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors. Over the last few years, many efforts have greatly improved the understanding of effector and NB-LRR function, but have left a lot of questions as to how effector perception activates NB-LRR induction of defense signaling. This review describes exciting new findings showing similarities and differences in function of diverse plant NB-LRR proteins in terms of pathogen recognition and where and how resistance proteins are activated. Localization studies have shown that some NB-LRRs can activate signaling from the cytosol while others act in the nucleus. Also, the structural determination of two NB-LRR signaling domains demonstrated that receptor oligomerization is fundamental for the activation of resistance signaling.Current opinion in plant biology 06/2011; 14(5):512-8. · 10.33 Impact Factor