We describe temporal trends in stroke incidence stratified by age from our population-based stroke epidemiology study. We hypothesized that stroke incidence in younger adults (age 20-54) increased over time, most notably between 1999 and 2005.
The Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region includes an estimated population of 1.3 million. Strokes were ascertained in the population between July 1, 1993, and June 30, 1994, and in calendar years 1999 and 2005. Age-, race-, and gender-specific incidence rates with 95 confidence intervals were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. We tested for differences in age trends over time using a mixed-model approach, with appropriate link functions.
The mean age at stroke significantly decreased from 71.2 years in 1993/1994 to 69.2 years in 2005 (p < 0.0001). The proportion of all strokes under age 55 increased from 12.9% in 1993/1994 to 18.6% in 2005. Regression modeling showed a significant change over time (p = 0.002), characterized as a shift to younger strokes in 2005 compared with earlier study periods. Stroke incidence rates in those 20-54 years of age were significantly increased in both black and white patients in 2005 compared to earlier periods.
We found trends toward increasing stroke incidence at younger ages. This is of great public health significance because strokes in younger patients carry the potential for greater lifetime burden of disability and because some potential contributors identified for this trend are modifiable.
"One study which examined trends in the incidence of stroke during a period from 1993 to 2005, reported that while there was a decrease in the overall incidence of stroke, the proportion of stroke in young adults (age range: 20-54 yr) increased from 12.9% to 18.6% (15). According to this report, this increase in trend was associated with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and obesity among young adults, which are major risk factors for stroke. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stroke in young adults has been known to show a lower incidence and a better prognosis. Only a few studies have examined the epidemiology and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults and compared them with the elderly in Korean population. All consecutive patients with ischemic stroke visiting 29 participating emergency departments were enrolled from November 2007 to October 2009. Patients with less than 15 yr of age and unknown information on age and confirmed diagnosis were excluded. We categorized the patients into young adults (15 to 45 yr) and elderly (46 yr and older) groups. Of 39,156 enrolled all stroke patients, 25,818 with ischemic stroke were included and analyzed (young adult; n=1,431, 5.5%). Young adult patients showed lower prevalence of most chronic diseases but significantly higher prevalence in exercise, current smoking, and alcohol consumption. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in young adults than elderly (1.1% vs. 3.1%, P<0.001). Higher number of patients in elderly group (68.1%) showed worsening change of modified Rankin Scale than young adults (65.2%). Young adults ischemic stroke showed favorable hospital outcomes than the elderly in Korean population.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2014; 29(7):985-91. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.985 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"Moreover, the prevalence of risk factors for stroke is expected to rise – as is the survival of stroke patients. A recent study has also shown a trend towards increasing stroke incidence at younger ages (age 20-54 years) during the past decade . The result is an increased number of stroke patients. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives
Despite recent progress in stroke prevention and acute treatment, neurorehabilitation remains one of the main methods of treatment in the management of stroke patients. The aim of this study is to point out some important predicting factors of in-hospital neurorehabilitation outcomes.
A rehabilitation registry including all patients who had undergone a standardized program of neurorehabilitation at the neurorehabilitation unit of the Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, was created. Patients aged <65 years and having experienced a first ever nontraumatic stroke from 2005 to 2010 were admitted. Using logistical regression models, predicting factors for each patient were compared to the exit Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score.
Age >55 years, gender, aphasia, hemilateral spatial neglect, spasticity, complications, length of stay >70 days, entry FIM >100 and relative possible FIM gain/week of >10% were considered to be significant and independent predicting factors of the neurorehabilitation outcome.
Some factors of the in-hospital rehabilitation period have been identified before (spasticity, complications, length of stay, relative possible FIM gain/week) and should be considered for a better management of the neurorehabilitation therapy. In addition, a personalized rehabilitation strategy based on the patient's individual needs should be aimed at. The question of resource allocation can also be addressed with regard to the present findings.
"Most patients with cryptogenic stroke are less than 55 years of age with significant cost implications both in the short and long term [17,19-21]. The optimal treatment strategy of secondary prevention for patients with cryptogenic stroke is still unclear. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an association between cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). The optimal treatment strategy for secondary prevention remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyze aggregate data examining the safety and efficacy of transcatheter device closure versus standard medical therapy in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke.
A search of published data identified 3 randomized clinical trials for inclusion. The primary outcome was a composite end-point of death, stroke and transient-ischemic attack (TIA). Pre-defined subgroup analysis was performed with respect to baseline characteristics including age, sex, atrial septal aneurysm and shunt size. Data was synthesized using a random effects model and results presented as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
A cohort of 2,303 patients with a history of cryptogenic stroke and PFO were randomized to device closure (n = 1150) and medical therapy (n = 1153). Mean follow-up was 2.5 years. Transcatheter closure was not superior to medical therapy in the secondary prevention of stroke or TIA in intention-to-treat analysis (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.43 to 1.01; p = 0.056). However, the results were statistically significant using per-protocol analysis (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.98; p = 0.043). Males had significant benefit with device closure (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.96; p = 0.038).
In this meta-analysis, using intention-to-treat analysis, transcatheter device closure of PFO was not superior to standard medical therapy in the secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. Transcatheter closure was superior using per-protocol analysis.
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