Meeting the biologic challenge of colorectal metastases.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Landmark Medical Center, Woonsocket, RI, USA, .
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis (Impact Factor: 3.73). 10/2012; DOI: 10.1007/s10585-012-9517-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An overview of colorectal cancer discussed (Philip Paty) the good outcome after primary management with local control in 90-95 % of colon and 85 % in rectal cancer patients with major progression to metastases and to death related to hematogenous dissemination. The major disease pathways include the APC, aneuploid pathway involving mutations of P53, KRAS, SMAD 4, or the CMP/MSI pathway, mismatched repair defect as characterized by Lynch syndrome, the major hereditary form which may also have KRAS and P53 mutations. The common sporadic colorectal cancers are MS1 high, with many patients having BRAF and KRAS mutations. The sentinel node biopsy in colorectal cancer surgery may provide more definitive staging and perhaps modification of the extent of resection with better outcome as suggested by Dr. Saha. The identification of sentinel lymph nodes outside of the planned bowel resection may increase the resection biologically indicated by the sentinel lymph node location leading to better outcome. In a small study by Dr. Saha, the operation was enhanced in 21 % by extending the length of bowel resection, which increased node recovery to 18.5 nodes versus 12 nodes with the more conventional resection, increasing nodal recovery, and positivity to 60 % with reduction to five year recurrence rate to 9 % versus 27 % with the conventional resection. A new (Swiss) technique for pathologic node examination, the OSNA (the One Step Nucleic Acid diagnostic system), was presented which demonstrated increased detection of micro-metastases in a focused pathology study of 22 patients (Zuber) to 11 out of 15 patients versus the 7 micro-metastases identified by the standard single slide per node, and compared to 14 out of 15 with an intensive multi-slide technique. This suggests value in pursuing OSNA study by other centers with relevant clinical trials to establish its true value. An analysis of liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) emphasized the value of 10-year follow-up (DeAngelica). The 10-year survival of 102 patients among 612 patients was 17 % (Memorial Sloan Kettering data). At the five-year point 99 of 102 survivors were NED and 86 have been free of disease since the resection. The usual five-year figure after hepatic resection reveals that one-third of five-year survivors die from recurrence of distant disease suggesting the value of longer term follow-up in these patients. An additional question reviewed related to the role of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (with response rates in the 50 % range) to produce down staging of the hepatic metastases and allow one to retrieve these patients with possible residual disease. In a series of 116 patients who had hepatic resection of CRC metastases in presence of regional node metastases, post neoadjuvant chemotherapy (normally not candidates for resection) these patients were demonstrated to have a 95 % recurrence at median time of 9 months. This raises a cautionary note to the literature report of five-year survivals in the 20-30 % range for hepatic metastases in presence of extra hepatic disease. Such may reflect patient selection rather than a true measure of the biology of disease, and warrant clinical trial evaluation. Lastly, regional therapy and overall systemic therapy were addressed by Dr. Kemeny. The CALGB study of hepatic artery infusion (HAI) with FUDR, dexamethasone versus 5FU leucovorin showed an overall survival of 24.4 months with HAI versus 20 months with systemic therapy (P = 0.0034). An adjuvant trial of HAI at MSK in 156 patients showed an overall survival benefit at 2 year and recent long term 10yr follow-up showing a significant overall survival of 41 % with HAI versus 27 % with systemic therapy (5FU leucovorin). In the neoadjuvant Nordlinger trial for hepatic metastases, there was a significant outcome differences-the preoperative therapy group had 9.2 % increase of progression free survival versus the surgery alone group which suggests the value of combining neoadjuvant surgery in good risk liver resection candidates. Conclude the final lesson from this well presented mini symposium confirms the need for continued evaluation of the numerous discussion points by clinical trial.

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    • "It is well known that almost 50% of the patients with colon carcinoma will develop metastasis during follow-up. Survival has greatly improved in recent decades due to the design of aggressive therapeutic schemes that try to reduce the burden of disease and enhance response to adjuvant chemotherapy and also to targeted drugs [8]. Surgery of the metastasis is the best curative therapy [3], but in some cases, it can be preceded by neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). "
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy of metastatic colorectal carcinoma has greatly evolved in recent years. Surgery is still the best curative option and can improve survival in stage IV disease. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has emerged as a widely used therapeutic option before surgery. Pathologists have developed several systems to grade response, mainly adapting the grading systems used for the response in primary esophageal or rectal tumors. There are many reports confirming the prognostic utility of these grading systems. However, there have been fewer references to the potential significance of the pattern of histological response. The objective of the present study is to describe the histopathological lesions found in the tumor bed after NAC and their potential significance in terms of prognosis. We reviewed the files of patients with colorectal carcinoma that developed hepatic metastasis during follow-up and received NAC before surgical resection of metastasis. We gathered demographic, analytical and morphological data of the cases, and also reviewed the hepatic resection samples to measure the pathological response to chemotherapy according to Blazer's criteria, and to define the predominant patterns of response (mucin pools, fibrosis or necrosis). We also determined the presence of satellitosis, measured the thickness of the tumor-normal interface (TNI) as proposed by Maru et al., and searched for vascular and bile duct invasion. All these pieces of information were collected in an Excel database and analyzed with SPSS 20.0 for Windows statistical package. The outcome measures were disease-free survival and overall survival in months since the first surgery to resect metastatic disease. Fifty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the present study. All of them had received a chemotherapeutic regimen mainly based on platinum, associated or not with targeted drugs (18% received anti-EGFR drugs and 24% anti-VEGFR drugs). Of the primaries, 66% were of sigmoid-rectal origin, and 32% of the cases showed a major histopathological response to therapy (including 3 cases with a complete response). In 76% of the tumors, the predominant histological pattern was necrosis, followed by fibrosis (57.4%). Mucin pools were the predominant feature in 23.4% of the tumors. We found satellitosis (microscopic tumor nodules separated by more than 1mm from the principal tumor) in 53.2% of the cases. A prominent inflammatory reaction was found in 19% of the cases, and it was mainly composed of lymphocytes and hystiocytes (70% of the cases). Vessel invasion was seen in 30% of the cases, and perineural invasion was only found in 4%. We found no case of bile duct invasion by the tumor. The thickness of the TNI measured less than 2.5mm in 60% of the present series. Statistical analysis of the series revealed that thickness of the tumor-liver interface was significantly associated with recurrence and overall survival. We found a significant association between response and thickness of the tumor-normal liver interface. In our series, the presence of satellitosis tended to predict a shorter DFS. The comparison of Kaplan-Meier curves with the log-rank test showed a significant association between overall survival and the presence of mucin pools and fibrosis in the tumor bed. The other histopathological factors did not predict differences in prognosis. These differences were independent of the use of targeted drugs. The pathological reports of hepatic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma resected after NAC usually indicate only the number, the size and the response of the tumor cells to therapy, apart from the distance to the resection margin of the specimen. Few reports have analyzed the possible prognostic significance of the different kinds of histopathological responses. The results of the present study indicate that those tumors with extensive pools of mucin show a significantly worse prognosis as compared to tumors with less mucin secretion. Fibrosis indicates a better prognosis, except when desmoplasia is present. Our study further supports the prognostic significance of the thickness of the tumor-hepatic interface. We conclude that pathology reports should specify the kind of histopathological response to therapy, besides grading it, because this might add significant prognostic information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite remarkable progress in proteomic methods, including improved detection limits and sensitivity, these methods have not yet been established in routine clinical practice. The main limitations, which prevent their integration into clinics are high cost of equipment, the need for highly-trained personnel, and last, but not least, the establishment of reliable and accurate protein biomarkers or panels of protein biomarkers for detection of neoplasms. Furthermore, the complexity and heterogeneity of most solid tumours present obstacles in the discovery of specific protein signatures, which could be used for early detection of cancers, for prediction of disease outcome, and for determining the response to specific therapies. However, cancer proteome, as the end-point of pathological processes that underlie cancer development and progression, could represent an important source for the discovery of new biomarkers and molecular targets for tailored therapies.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The metastatic dissemination of primary tumors is directly linked to patient survival in many tumor entities. The previously undescribed gene metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was discovered by genome-wide analyses in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. MACC1 is a tumor stage-independent predictor for CRC metastasis linked to metastasis-free survival. Areas covered: In this review, the discovery of MACC1 is briefly presented. In the following, the overwhelming confirmation of these data is provided supporting MACC1 as a new remarkable biomarker for disease prognosis and prediction of therapy response for CRC and also for a variety of additional forms of solid cancers. Lastly, the potential clinical utility of MACC1 as a target for prevention or restriction of tumor progression and metastasis is envisioned. Expert opinion: MACC1 has been identified as a prognostic biomarker in a variety of solid cancers. MACC1 correlated with tumor formation and progression, development of metastases and patient survival representing a decisive driver for tumorigenesis and metastasis. MACC1 was also demonstrated to be of predictive value for therapy response. MACC1 is a promising therapeutic target for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic intervention strategies of solid cancers. Its clinical utility, however, must be demonstrated in clinical trials.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 07/2013; 17. DOI:10.1517/14728222.2013.815727 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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