Meeting the biologic challenge of colorectal metastases.
ABSTRACT An overview of colorectal cancer discussed (Philip Paty) the good outcome after primary management with local control in 90-95 % of colon and 85 % in rectal cancer patients with major progression to metastases and to death related to hematogenous dissemination. The major disease pathways include the APC, aneuploid pathway involving mutations of P53, KRAS, SMAD 4, or the CMP/MSI pathway, mismatched repair defect as characterized by Lynch syndrome, the major hereditary form which may also have KRAS and P53 mutations. The common sporadic colorectal cancers are MS1 high, with many patients having BRAF and KRAS mutations. The sentinel node biopsy in colorectal cancer surgery may provide more definitive staging and perhaps modification of the extent of resection with better outcome as suggested by Dr. Saha. The identification of sentinel lymph nodes outside of the planned bowel resection may increase the resection biologically indicated by the sentinel lymph node location leading to better outcome. In a small study by Dr. Saha, the operation was enhanced in 21 % by extending the length of bowel resection, which increased node recovery to 18.5 nodes versus 12 nodes with the more conventional resection, increasing nodal recovery, and positivity to 60 % with reduction to five year recurrence rate to 9 % versus 27 % with the conventional resection. A new (Swiss) technique for pathologic node examination, the OSNA (the One Step Nucleic Acid diagnostic system), was presented which demonstrated increased detection of micro-metastases in a focused pathology study of 22 patients (Zuber) to 11 out of 15 patients versus the 7 micro-metastases identified by the standard single slide per node, and compared to 14 out of 15 with an intensive multi-slide technique. This suggests value in pursuing OSNA study by other centers with relevant clinical trials to establish its true value. An analysis of liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) emphasized the value of 10-year follow-up (DeAngelica). The 10-year survival of 102 patients among 612 patients was 17 % (Memorial Sloan Kettering data). At the five-year point 99 of 102 survivors were NED and 86 have been free of disease since the resection. The usual five-year figure after hepatic resection reveals that one-third of five-year survivors die from recurrence of distant disease suggesting the value of longer term follow-up in these patients. An additional question reviewed related to the role of neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (with response rates in the 50 % range) to produce down staging of the hepatic metastases and allow one to retrieve these patients with possible residual disease. In a series of 116 patients who had hepatic resection of CRC metastases in presence of regional node metastases, post neoadjuvant chemotherapy (normally not candidates for resection) these patients were demonstrated to have a 95 % recurrence at median time of 9 months. This raises a cautionary note to the literature report of five-year survivals in the 20-30 % range for hepatic metastases in presence of extra hepatic disease. Such may reflect patient selection rather than a true measure of the biology of disease, and warrant clinical trial evaluation. Lastly, regional therapy and overall systemic therapy were addressed by Dr. Kemeny. The CALGB study of hepatic artery infusion (HAI) with FUDR, dexamethasone versus 5FU leucovorin showed an overall survival of 24.4 months with HAI versus 20 months with systemic therapy (P = 0.0034). An adjuvant trial of HAI at MSK in 156 patients showed an overall survival benefit at 2 year and recent long term 10yr follow-up showing a significant overall survival of 41 % with HAI versus 27 % with systemic therapy (5FU leucovorin). In the neoadjuvant Nordlinger trial for hepatic metastases, there was a significant outcome differences-the preoperative therapy group had 9.2 % increase of progression free survival versus the surgery alone group which suggests the value of combining neoadjuvant surgery in good risk liver resection candidates. Conclude the final lesson from this well presented mini symposium confirms the need for continued evaluation of the numerous discussion points by clinical trial.
- SourceAvailable from: Radovan Komel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite remarkable progress in proteomic methods, including improved detection limits and sensitivity, these methods have not yet been established in routine clinical practice. The main limitations, which prevent their integration into clinics are high cost of equipment, the need for highly-trained personnel, and last, but not least, the establishment of reliable and accurate protein biomarkers or panels of protein biomarkers for detection of neoplasms. Furthermore, the complexity and heterogeneity of most solid tumours present obstacles in the discovery of specific protein signatures, which could be used for early detection of cancers, for prediction of disease outcome, and for determining the response to specific therapies. However, cancer proteome, as the end-point of pathological processes that underlie cancer development and progression, could represent an important source for the discovery of new biomarkers and molecular targets for tailored therapies.The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; in press(on-line):1-52. · 1.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: The metastatic dissemination of primary tumors is directly linked to patient survival in many tumor entities. The previously undescribed gene metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was discovered by genome-wide analyses in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. MACC1 is a tumor stage-independent predictor for CRC metastasis linked to metastasis-free survival. Areas covered: In this review, the discovery of MACC1 is briefly presented. In the following, the overwhelming confirmation of these data is provided supporting MACC1 as a new remarkable biomarker for disease prognosis and prediction of therapy response for CRC and also for a variety of additional forms of solid cancers. Lastly, the potential clinical utility of MACC1 as a target for prevention or restriction of tumor progression and metastasis is envisioned. Expert opinion: MACC1 has been identified as a prognostic biomarker in a variety of solid cancers. MACC1 correlated with tumor formation and progression, development of metastases and patient survival representing a decisive driver for tumorigenesis and metastasis. MACC1 was also demonstrated to be of predictive value for therapy response. MACC1 is a promising therapeutic target for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic intervention strategies of solid cancers. Its clinical utility, however, must be demonstrated in clinical trials.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 07/2013; DOI:10.1517/14728222.2013.815727 · 4.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Migration and invasion of malignant cells are prerequisites for cancer progression and metastasis. The Bcl-2 family of proteins consists of about 25 members and has been extensively studied in the context of apoptosis. Despite the fact that small molecules targeting Bcl-2 proteins have already entered clinical trials, very few studies investigated a role of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins beside cell death in the context of metastasis. The aim of this study was to dissect a potential role of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL on migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells independent of their cell death control function. We used migration and invasion assays as well as three dimensional cell cultures to analyze colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and SW480) after siRNA mediated knockdown or overexpression of Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. We observed neither spontaneous cell death induction nor impaired proliferation of cells lacking Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. In contrast, knockdown of Mcl-1 led to increased proliferation. Strikingly, we demonstrate a profound impairment of both, migration and invasion, of colorectal cancer cells after Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL knockdown. This phenotype was completely revised in cells overexpressing Mcl-1, Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. The most pronounced effect among the investigated proteins was observed for Bcl-2. The data presented indicate a pivotal role of Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL for migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells independent of their known antiapoptotic effects. Thus, our study illustrates novel antitumoral mechanisms of Bcl-2 protein targeting.PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76446. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076446 · 3.53 Impact Factor