Thermodynamic effects of laser irradiation of implants placed in bone: An in vitro study

Division of Periodontics, Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.
Lasers in Medical Science (Impact Factor: 2.49). 10/2012; 28(6). DOI: 10.1007/s10103-012-1215-z
Source: PubMed


Lasers have been proposed for various applications involving dental implants, including uncovering implants and treating peri-implantitis. However, the effect of laser irradiation on the implant surface temperature is only partially known. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of irradiation with diode, carbon dioxide, and Er:YAG lasers on the surface temperature of dental implants placed in bone, in vitro. For this study, one dental implant was placed in a bovine rib. A trephine bur was used to create a circumferential defect to simulate peri-implantitis, and thermocouples were placed at the coronal and apical aspect of the implant. The implant was irradiated for 60 s using four different lasers independently and change in temperature as well as time to reach a 10 °C increase in temperature were recorded. There was wide variability in results among the lasers and settings. Time for a 10 °C increase ranged from 0.9 to over 60 s for the coronal thermocouple and from 18 to over 60 s for the apical thermocouple. Maximum temperature ranged from 5.9 to 70.9 °C coronally and from 1.4 to 23.4 °C apically. During laser irradiation of dental implants, a surface temperature increase beyond the "critical threshold" of 10 °C can be reached after only 18 s.

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Available from: Alessandro Geminiani, Dec 28, 2014
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    • "In contrast, Geminiani et al. showed that the application of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers in continuous mode for 10 seconds generated high temperature above the critical threshold [31]. Also, Leja et al, assessing temperature rise after using diode, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers on dental implants concluded that irradiation for 18 seconds increased the temperature by up to 10ºC [32]. More studies are needed to evaluate thermal changes on different implant surfaces after laser irradiation to find the appropriate protocol for safe use in the clinical setting. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Peri-implantitis is one of the most common reasons for implant failure. Decontamination of infected implant surfaces can be achieved effectively by laser irradiation; although the associated thermal rise may cause irreversible bone damage and lead to implant loss. Temperature increments of over 10ºC during laser application may suffice for irreversible bone damage. Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature increment of implant surface during Er:YAG laser irradiation with different cooling systems. Materials and Methods: Three implants were placed in a resected block of sheep mandible and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 3 different cooling systems namely water and air spray, air spray alone and no water or air spray. Temperature changes of the implant surface were monitored during laser irradiation with a K-type thermocouple at the apical area of the fixture. Results: In all 3 groups, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 10°C. Temperature changes were significantly different with different cooling systems used (P<0.001). Conclusion: Based on the results, no thermal damage was observed during implant surface decontamination by Er:YAG laser with and without refrigeration. Thus, Er:YAG laser irradiation can be a safe method for treatment of periimplantitis.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of phototherapy with 890-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the healing of experimentally induced tendinitis in sheep was evaluated in this study. Partial tenotomies measuring 0.2 cm wide × 0.5 cm long were performed on the second third of the superficial digital flexor tendons of 10 healthy sheep. The animals were divided into two groups: "treated" (TG), treated with LEDs at the aforementioned wavelength, and "control" (CG), a control group treated with a placebo. Kinesiotherapy, which consisted of 5-min walks on grassy ground, was performed on both groups. B-mode and power Doppler ultrasonographies (US) were performed to evaluate the tendon healing process during the first 14 days after surgery and on the 21st and 28th postoperative days. Biopsies were performed on day 28 for the histopathological assessment of neovascularisation and the pattern of the tendon fibres. The absence of lameness and a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in the sensitivity to pain during palpation were observed in the treated group. Furthermore, a significant reduction in oedema and an increased number of vessels (p < 0.05) were observed in this group with the B-mode and power Doppler US, respectively. No significant difference in the evolution of the lesion was found. There was a histological difference (p < 0.05) in neovascularisation in the treated group. Phototherapy with 890-nm light-emitting diodes decreases the inflammatory process.
    Lasers in Medical Science 08/2014; 30(1). DOI:10.1007/s10103-014-1641-1 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of various laser wavelengths in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Kotsakis GA, Konstantinidis I, Karoussis IK, Ma X, Chu H. J Periodontol 2014;85(9):1203-13. Prof. Dr. med. dent. Georgios E. Romanos, DDS, PhD, Fawad Javed, BDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: Is laser therapy, as a mono-therapy or as an adjunctive therapy, an efficacious treatment modality for patients with peri-implantitis? National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, Award Number UL1TR000114 TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 03/2015; 15(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jebdp.2015.03.005
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