Identification of KIF5B-RET and GOPC-ROS1 fusions in lung adenocarcinomas through a comprehensive mRNA-based screen for tyrosine kinase fusions

Dept. of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.72). 10/2012; 18(24). DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0838
Source: PubMed


The mutually exclusive pattern of the major driver oncogenes in lung cancer suggests that other mutually exclusive oncogenes exist. We conducted a systematic search for tyrosine kinase fusions by screening all tyrosine kinases for aberrantly high RNA expression levels of the 3' kinase domain (KD) exons relative to more 5' exons.

We studied 69 patients (including five never smokers and 64 current or former smokers) with lung adenocarcinoma negative for all major mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, MEK1, HER2, and for ALK fusions (termed "pan-negative"). A NanoString-based assay was designed to query the transcripts of 90 tyrosine kinases at two points: 5' to the KD and within the KD or 3' to it. Tumor RNAs were hybridized to the NanoString probes and analyzed for outlier 3' to 5' expression ratios. Presumed novel fusion events were studied by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and confirmatory reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and FISH.

We identified one case each of aberrant 3' to 5' ratios in ROS1 and RET. RACE isolated a GOPC-ROS1 (FIG-ROS1) fusion in the former and a KIF5B-RET fusion in the latter, both confirmed by RT-PCR. The RET rearrangement was also confirmed by FISH. The KIF5B-RET patient was one of only five never smokers in this cohort.

The KIF5B-RET fusion defines an additional subset of lung cancer with a potentially targetable driver oncogene enriched in never smokers with "pan-negative" lung adenocarcinomas. We also report in lung cancer the GOPC-ROS1 fusion originally discovered and characterized in a glioma cell line.

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    • "[13,15–17] in lung adenocarcinoma. RET, as another fusion gene, is rarely detected in NSCLC, which is reported from 1-2% [18] [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whether Cell block (CB) samples are applicable to detect anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) and ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusion genes in lung adenocarcinoma is still unknown. In this study, 108 cytological samples that contained lung adenocarcinoma cells were collected, and made into CB. The CB samples all contained at least 30% lung adenocarcinoma cells. In these patients, 48 harbored EGFR mutation. Among the 50 EGFR wild type patients who detected fusion genes, 14 carried EML4-ALK fusion (28%), 2 had TPM3-ROS1 fusion (4%), and 3 harbored KIF5B-RET fusion (6%). No double fusions were found in one sample. Patients with fusion genes were younger than those without fusion genes (p = 0.032), but no significant difference was found in sex and smoking status (p > 0.05). In the thirty-five patients who received first-line chemotherapy, patients with fusion gene positive had disease control rate (DCR) (72.7% VS 50%, p > 0.05) and objective response rate (ORR) (9.1% VS 4.2%, p > 0.05) compared with those having fusion gene negative. The median progression free survival (mPFS) were 4.0 and 2.7 months in patients harbored fusion mutations and wild type, respectively (p > 0.05). We conclude that CB samples could be used to detect ALK, ROS1 and RET fusions in NSCLC. The frequency distribution of three fusion genes is higher in lung adenocarcinoma with wild-type EGFR, compared with unselected NSCLC patient population. Patients with fusion genes positive are younger than those with fusion gene negative, but they had no significantly different PFS in first-line chemotherapy.
    Translational oncology 06/2014; 7(3):363–367. DOI:10.1016/j.tranon.2014.04.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Germ line gain‐of‐function RET mutations are associated with familial neuroendocrine tumours and medullary thyroid cancers; RET mutations are also found in sporadic medullary and papillary thyroid carcinoma (Ichihara et al, 2004; Morandi et al, 2011; Sariola and Saarma, 2003). More recently, oncogenic RET fusions were identified in lung adenocarcinomas (Kohno et al, 2012; Suehara et al, 2012; Takeuchi et al, 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: We show that elevated levels of Ret receptor are found in different sub-types of human breast cancers and that high Ret correlates with decreased metastasis-free survival. The role of Ret in ER+ breast cancer models was explored combining in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our analyses revealed that ligand-induced Ret activation: (i) stimulates migration of breast cancer cells; (ii) rescues cells from anti-proliferative effects of endocrine treatment and (iii) stimulates expression of cytokines in the presence of endocrine agents. Indeed, we uncovered a positive feed-forward loop between the inflammatory cytokine IL6 and Ret that links them at the expression and the functional level. In vivo inhibition of Ret in a metastatic breast cancer model inhibits tumour outgrowth and metastatic potential. Ret inhibition blocks the feed-forward loop by down-regulating Ret levels, as well as decreasing activity of Fak, an integrator of IL6-Ret signalling. Our results suggest that Ret kinase should be considered as a novel therapeutic target in subsets of breast cancer.
    EMBO Molecular Medicine 09/2013; 5(9). DOI:10.1002/emmm.201302625 · 8.67 Impact Factor
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    • "A different and more detailed process is postulated for CFTR, where PIST enhances degradation by facilitating its targeting to lysosomes (Cheng et al., 2005). A fusion between PIST and the proto-oncogene ROS1 has been detected, initially in glioblastoma and subsequently in other cancer types (Charest et al., 2003; Birch et al., 2011; Gu et al., 2011; Suehara et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although crucial for their correct function, the mechanisms controlling surface expression of ion channels are poorly understood. In the case of the voltage-gated potassium channel KV10.1, this is determinant not only for its physiological function in brain, but also for its pathophysiology in tumors and possible use as a therapeutic target. The Golgi resident protein PIST binds several membrane proteins, thereby modulating their expression. Here we describe a PDZ domain-mediated interaction of KV10.1 and PIST, which enhances surface levels of KV10.1. The functional, but not the physical interaction of both proteins is dependent on the coiled-coil and PDZ domains of PIST; insertion of eight amino acids in the coiled-coil domain to render the neural form of PIST (nPIST) and the corresponding short isoform in an as-of-yet unknown form abolishes the effect. In addition, two new isoforms of PIST (sPIST and nsPIST) lacking nearly the complete PDZ domain were cloned and shown to be ubiquitously expressed. PIST and KV10.1 co-precipitate from native and expression systems. nPIST also showed interaction, but did not alter the functional expression of the channel. We could not document physical interaction between KV10.1 and sPIST, but it reduced KV10.1 functional expression in a dominant-negative manner. nsPIST showed weak physical interaction and no functional effect on KV10.1. We propose these isoforms to work as modulators of PIST function via regulating the binding on interaction partners.
    Frontiers in Physiology 08/2013; 4:201. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00201 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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