Article

Microscopic Particles in Two Fractions of Fresh Cerebrospinal Fluid in Twins with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder and in Healthy Controls

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 09/2012; 7(9):e45994. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045994
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using scanning electron microscopy, microscopic structures have been identified in fresh cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but only rarely in control subjects. However, it has not been determined whether these microscopic particles represent state or trait markers, i.e. if their presence is related to clinical manifestations of the disease or if they also can be found in as yet asymptomatic individuals with a genetic liability. This question can be addressed by studying twins discordant or concordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
We investigated microscopic structures in CSF in 102 individuals: 21 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic twins affected or not affected with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder and in 65 healthy singleton controls. A first and a second fraction of CSF was freshly applied on filters and examined by scanning electron microscopy technique. Spherical particles with lipid appearance averaging between 0.1 to 8.0 µm in diameter were detected in the center of the filter as well as located in the margins of larger aggregates binding in a viscous state. Structures were found in 12 of 17 probands, 5 of 12 healthy co-twins and 3 of 73 healthy controls. Thus, a positive microscopic finding significantly increased the likelihood of belonging to the proband group (OR = 48, 95% CL: 8.2-550, p<0.0001) and the co-twin-group (OR = 16, 95% CL: 2.0-218, p = 0.006). Age, sex, history of alcohol abuse or anxiety syndrome, somatic disorder and markers of acute inflammatory activity did not account for group differences; nor did exposure to psychotropic medication.
Presence of microscopic particles in CSF may possibly reflect trait dependent genetic or environmental vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Anette G M Johansson, Jun 19, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
151 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective:Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation and immune dysregulation play an important role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Because the brain can be affected by various autoimmune processes, it is possible that some psychiatric disorders may have an autoimmune basis.Method:This article reviews the literature on peripheral and central immune dysregulation and autoimmunity in bipolar disorder. The mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune systems in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder are explored. The clinical features and pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-NMDA encephalitis, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are summarized.Results:Neuroinflammation and peripheral immune dysregulation may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. This involves a complex interaction between immune cells of the central nervous system and periphery resulting in cellular damage through mechanisms involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-NMDA encephalitis, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are important differentials for a psychiatrist to consider when suspecting autoimmune encephalopathy.Conclusions:The link between immune dysregulation, autoimmunity, and bipolar disorder may be closer than previously thought. Psychiatrists should be vigilant for autoimmunity in presentations of bipolar disorder due to its high morbidity and therapeutic implications. Advances in neuroimaging and biomarker identification related to immune dysregulation and neuroinflammation will contribute to our knowledge of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 08/2013; 47(12). DOI:10.1177/0004867413499077 · 3.77 Impact Factor